Tikamgarh district, a part of Sagar division is a district of Madhya Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Tikamgarh town. The district got its name from the headquarters town, Tikamgarh. Earlier, the place was popularly known as Tihri. Since Vikramajit (1776-1817), the king of Orchha changed his capital from Orchha to Tihri in 1783 hence he renamed it as Tikamgarh. Moreover, Tikam is one of the names of Lord Krishna. Until it was merged with Indian Union, the place was under the Princely State of Orchha. In the year 1501, Rudra Pratap Singh founded the Orchha state. During the period of the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir, his ally, Vir Singh Deo (r. 1605-1627) ruled this place and at that period of time the glory of the Orchha reaches its height and many extant palaces of present day’s remind us of its architectural aura, including Jahangir Mahal and Sawan Bhadon Mahal. In the early 17th century, a huge war took place between Raja Jhujhar Singh and the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. In which Shah Jahan won and occupied Orchha from 1635 to 1641. The today’s Tikamgarh is located almost 52 miles (84 Km.) in the southern part of the Orchha, also the capital of Orchha state in 1783. The district came into existence in the year 1887. The place merged with Vindhya Pradesh state in 1948 and became one of its eight districts. The reorganization of states took place on 1st November, 1956 which made it a part of the newly carved out Madhya Pradesh.
Geographically, the district lies at 24075'N latitude, 78083'E longitude and 246 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 7.66% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 5,048 sq Km.. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 33rd in the state and 219th in India. It is bounded by Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh on the north, Chhatarpur district on the south east and east and Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh on the west. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer and fairly cold during the cold. The actual rainfall in the district was 1303.4 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 9 tehsils namely Tikamgarh, Prithvipur, Jatara, Baldeogarh, Niwari, Palera, Orchha, Lidhorakhas and Khargapur. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 13 towns and 963 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 14,45,166 out of which 7,60,355 are males and 6,84,811 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 901 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 20.13% including 19.19% were males and 21.19% were females. The population density in the district is 286 persons per sq. Km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 29,019 out of which 14,885 were males and 14,134 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,374 including 3,479 were males and 1,895 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 95.73% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 99.74%.
The economy of the district is basically dependent on agriculture. The soil of the district is very fertile which favours in the growth of its various agricultural products. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, paddy, different types of pulses, till, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. The district is scantily industrialised only a few small scale industries are found in it. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Tikamgarh as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 10,46,767 lakh at current price and Rs. 7,01,911 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 9,74,782 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,42,729 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 62,183 at current price and Rs. 41,001 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Govt. Polytechnic College, Govt. Agriculture College, Govt. Veerangna avanti Bai Girls College, Govt. P.G. College, Basic Training Institute, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sardar Singh Smriti Shikha Mahavidhyalay, Dream World School, Daffodil's English Medium School, Shri Mahavir Bal Sanskar Higher Sec School, Maharshi Vidya Mandir, Angel Abode Public School, Saroj Convent Higher Secondary School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 61.43% including 71.77% are males and 49.97% are females.
Uma Bharti, an eminent Indian politician and the present cabinet minister for water resources, river development and Ganga rejuvenation in the Union Government of India was born on 3rd May, 1959 at Tikamgarh town. She is a member of Bharatiya Janata Party.
The district has numerous centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Orchha, a town situated at a distance of 80 Km. from Tikamgarh has the Ram Raja temple constructed on a square base with an almost entirely plain exterior. Jahangir Mahal, built on a rectangular base and Chaturbhuj temple, established on 9th century are the two most wonderful destinations of Orchha. Kundeshwar, a village located 5 Km. away south of Tikamgarh district is well known for the Kundadev Mahadev, an ancient temple of Lord Shiva on the bank of the Jamdhar River. People from far distance place come to this temple to offer their prayers. Aharji, a place in the district is a perfect religious site for the pilgrims of Jainism. Some other vital places of interest in the district are Baldeogarh, Paporaji, Badagaon, etc.