Ujjain district is a district of Madhya Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Ujjain city. In the 7th century BC when the second wave of urbanisation was started in India at that time Ujjain was emerged as the first major centre in the Malwa region and also popularly known as Ujjaiyini and Avanti. Around 600 BC ago Ujjain was enclosed into a city of considerable size by building an earthen rampart around it. In the ancient India, Avanti was a well-known mahajanapada. After the Mahabharata period around 500 BC ago the important kingdom in the western India i.e. Avanti was ruled by the Haihayas, a group of people who were responsible for the Naga power’s devastation in western India. In 1731 Ranoji established his capital at Ujjain but his successors moved to Gwalior and ruled over there in the latter half of the 18th century. On the other hand at the end of 18th century Scindias made the Ujjain city as their capital. After the India got its independence, Ujjain came under the Madhya Bharat state. Later, Madhya Bharat was merged into the Madhya Pradesh state in 1956.
Umakant Gundecha and Ramakant Gundecha, together known as the Gundecha Brothers, the leading Dagarvani dhrupad singers were born in the Ujjain district. Since, they always sing together hence they together honoured by the prestigious Padmashri Award in 2012.
Geographically, the district lies at 23018'N latitude, 75078'E longitude and 492 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.59% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 6,091 sq Km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 26th in the state and 168th in India. It bounded by Shajapur district on the North East and East, Dewas district on the South East, Dhar district on the South West and Ratlam district on the West and North West. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 779.5 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 7 tehsils namely Badnagar, Ghatiya, Khacharod, Mahidpur, Nagda, Tarana and Ujjain. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 8 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 9 towns and 1,101 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 19,86,864 including 10,16,289 are males and 9,70,575 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 955 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 16.12% out of which 15.11% were males and 17.20% were females. The population density in the district is 326 persons per sq. Km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 42,088 including 21,799 were males and 20,289 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 12,928 out of which 8,251 were males and 4,677 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 86.48% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 95.21%.
The economy of the district to some extent is dependent on agriculture. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, jowar, macca, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. The district is scantily industrialised. Some of its principal industries are Vikas Industries, S & H Industries, Hira Industries, etc. Every year a good amount of revenue comes from these industries helps in its economy to a remarkable extent. Now-a-days its tourism sector is also developed well enough. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 22,24,320 lakh at current price and Rs. 16,73,867 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 20,15,300 lakh at current price and Rs. 14,92,069 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 93,509 at current price and Rs. 69,231 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Vikram University, Maharshi Panini Sanskrit University, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain Polytechnic College, Ujjain Engineering College, St Paul's Higher Secondary School, Takshshila Junior College, Ujjain Public School, Lok Manya Tilak School & College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 72.34% including 83.46% are males and 60.74% are females.
Thawar Chand Gehlot, an Indian politician and the current cabinet minister in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment was born on 18th May, 1948 at Ujjain city. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. He was also elected as a member of the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th Lok Sabhas from the Shajapur constituency of Madhya Pradesh. Sartaj Singh, the current PWD minister in the government of Madhya Pradesh and a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) political party was born on 26th May, 1940 at Ujjain city. He was also elected as a member of the 14th Lok Sabha from the Hoshangabad constituency of Madhya Pradesh.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures numerous travellers from different parts of country as well as world. Shree Mahakaleshwar temple of Ujjain is believed to be one of the twelve celebrated Jyotirlingas in India. Moreover, the glory of the temple has been clearly described in various Purans. Kalidas Academi was established in Ujjain by the Government of Madhya Pradesh in order to immortalise the memory of the great poet and dramatist, Kalidas in the minds of people. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Bade Ganeshji Ka Mandir, Chintaman Ganesh Temple, Pir Matsyendranath, Bhartrihari Caves, Kaliadeh Palace, Harsiddhi Durga Temple, Siddhavat, Kal Bhairava, Sandipani Ashram, Gadkalika, Mangalnath, Gopal Mandir, Navagraha Mandir, The Vedha Shala (Observatory), Vikram Kirti Mandir, Vikram University, etc.