Seoni district, a part of Jabalpur division is a district of Madhya Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Seoni town. The district got its name from its headquarters town, Seoni. The name of the district is derived from the term Seona, a species of tree. Seona (Gudinaarborea) is a tree that grows abundantly in the area. Some other locals believe that it was named Shrioni by Jagat Guru who found it a pleasant place when he was passing through it during his journey to Kerala. With the passage of time the name of the place was changed to Seoni. The Seoni district came into existence on 1st November, 1956.
Geographically, the district lies at 22°09'N latitude, 79°54'E longitude and 611 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 34.97% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 8,758 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 6th in the state and 85th in India. It is bounded by Jabalpur district on the North, Maharashtra state on the South, Chhindwara district on the East, Narsinghpur district on the North West and Mandla district on the North East. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year except summer. The actual rainfall in the district was 1008.8 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 8 tehsils namely Barghat, Chhapara, Dhanora, Ghansaur, Keolari, Kurai, Lakhnadon and Seoni. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 4 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 6 towns and 1,587 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 13,79,131 out of which 6,95,879 are males and 6,83,252 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 982 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 18.22% including 18.20% were males and 18.24% were females. The population density in the district is 157 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 23,884 out of which 12,189 were males and 11,695 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 10,819 out of which 6,348 were males and 4,471 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 83.03% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 89.66%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for the agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, millets, rice, pulses, oil seeds, cotton, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agriculture products helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialised. One of its principal industries, Baidhnath Pvt. Ltd generates maximum employment opportunities to the locals. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Seoni as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 15,12,070 lakhs at current price and Rs. 8,82,667 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 14,06,104 lakh at current price and Rs. 8,00,986 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 89,323 at current price and Rs. 50,883 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised government educational institutions are Govt Degree College (Barghat), Govt College (Ghansor), Swami Vivekanand Govt College (Lakhnadon), NSCB Govt Girls College, Govt Degree College (Chhapara), Govt Arts and Commerce College (Keolari), Govt PG College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 72.12% including 80.45% are males and 63.67% are females.
The district has a variety of centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Bhimgarh Sanjay Sarovar Dam, constructed on Wainganga River at Chhapara is the largest dam of soil in Asia which helps to upgrade the irrigation facility of the district. It is a perfect destination for recreation. Pench National Park and Tiger Reserve got its name from the Pench River that flows in a direction from north to south by crossing the Reserve. This Tiger Reserve situated in the southern part of the Satpura Mountain Range lies between the Seoni district and the Chhindwara district, which holds a significant place in the natural history of central India. It has a huge variety of fauna and flora and also full of mesmerising natural sceneries. Amodagarh, a place of historical and archaeological significance is situated at a distance of almost thirty two km. from the Seoni district. The remaining portions of the palace of Sona Rani are still today in this place.