Satna district, a part of Rewa division is a district of Madhya Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Satna town. The district got its name from the river Sutna or Satna which is flowing through the region. Satna district is under the Baghelkhand region and earlier, a huge portion of the place was under the rule of the Rewa. In the third century CE the place was under the rule of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clan. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta dynasty overpowered the area. Therefore, the district was ruled by different notable dynasties during different periods of time. Later British came to India and in 1803, the British made a treaty named the treaty of Bassein with the ruler of Rewa, which they rejected after sometime. In 1812, when Raja Jaisingh (1809-35) was ruling the place, a group of Pindaris from Rewa territory attacked Mirzapur. Then he made a treaty with British government and according to which he accepted the help of the British Government in all his disputes with neighbouring chiefs for that very reason he allowed British troops to march through his territories. In return at the time of mutiny of 1857, Maharaja Raghuraj Singh helped the British to suppress the uprisings in the nearby districts like Mandla, Jabalpur and Nagod. Earlier, a huge portion of the Raghuraj Nagar and the complete Amarpatan tehsil of the today’s Satna district were under the Rewa State which later became a part of the Vindhya Pradesh.
Jagdish Sharan Verma, a distinguished Indian jurist who served as the 27th Chief Justice of India from 25th March, 1997 to 18th January, 1998 was born on 18th January, 1933 at Satna town. He was also served as the Chairman of National Human Rights Commission from 1999 to 2003.
Geographically, the district lies at 24°58'N latitude, 80°83'E longitude and 315 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 23.35% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 7,502 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 11th in the state and 124th in India. It is bounded by Uttar Pradesh on the North, Umaria district and Katni district on the South, Rewa district on the East and Panna district on the West. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 960.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 10 tehsils namely Amarpatan, Birsinghpur, Kotar, Maihar, Majhgawan, Nagod, Raghurajnagar, Ramnagar, Rampur Baghelan and Unchahara. It also comprises 6 sub-divisions likewise Satna, Nagod, Rampur Baghelan, Amarpatan, Maihar, Majhgawan. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 7 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 13 towns and 1,984 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 22,28,935 out of which 11,57,495 are males and 10,71,440 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 926 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 19.19% including 19.16% were males and 19.22% were females. The population density in the district is 297 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 48,617 out of which 25,721 were males and 22,896 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 14,607 out of which 9,198 were males and 5,409 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 96.85% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 98.67%.
The economy of the district is mainly based on agriculture. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, black gram, green gram, soyabean, pigeon pea, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. The district is scantily industrialised but some small industries of handloom weaving, flour, oilseed milling, fabric products, etc are available in the district. The district is well known for its dolomite mines and limestone. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Satna as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 25,07,333 lakhs at current price and Rs. 15,45,796 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 22,83,135 lakh at current price and Rs. 13,72,002 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 89,740 at current price and Rs. 53,928 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is fortunate enough to have India's first rural university named Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramoday Vishwavidyalaya, established in 1991. Some of the colleges in the district are also affiliated to Awdhesh Pratap Singh University, located in Rewa. Some other reputed educational institutions in the district are Indira Gandhi Govt. Girls Collage, Government Polytechnic College, Shri Rama Krishna College, Rajiv Gandhi Computer College, Mahatma Gandhi College, Vindhya Institute of Technology and Science, Sadguru Institute of Paramedical Sciences, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 72.26% including 81.37% are males and 62.45% are females.
Ramanand Singh, an eminent Indian politician and a member of 12th and 13th Lok Sabha from the Satna constituency was born on 25th June, 1937 at Karigohi in the district. He is a member of Bharatiya Janata Party. Govind Narayan Singh, an illustrious Indian politician and the former chief minister of Madhya Pradesh i.e. from 30th July, 1967 to 12th March, 1969 was born on 25th July, 1920 at Rampur Baghelan in the district. He was a leader of the Indian National Congress.
The district has several centres of attraction in the district which allures numerous travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Bharhut Stupa, an ancient Buddhist cultured site located in the district was built in 3rd century BC. Moreover, the place was discovered by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1873. Tulsi Archeological Museum, situated at Ram Van has a huge number of antique artistic sculptures. Chitrakoot Dham in the district is a pilgrimage centre with Puranic importance. Devotees from far distance place come to this dham to offer their prayers. Maihar, another holy place located in the Satna district is famous for the temple of Goddess Sharada or Goddess Saraswati.