Fatehgarh Sahib District is a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Fatehgarh Sahib town. For the first time it was emerged as a separate district on 13th April 1992, the Baisakhi Day. The district is named after Sahib Zada Fateh Singh, the youngest son of the 10th Guru Gobind Singh. It is believed that Sahib Zada Fateh Singh along with his brother was bricked-up alive in 1704 on the orders of Suba Sirhind, Wazir Khan and at present the 'Gurudwara Fatehgarh Sahib' is situated in that site.
Giani Ditt Singh, an eminent scholar, poet, editor and Singh Sabha reformer was born on 21st April, 1850 at Kalaur village in the Fatehgarh Sahib district. He wrote over 70 books on Sikhism and out of these the most famous one is Khalsa Akhbar.
Geographically, the district lies at 30°65' N latitude, 76°38' E longitude and 300 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 0.32% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,180 sq km. and it is bounded by Ludhiana district and Rupnagar district on the North, Patiala district on the South, Rupnagar district and Patiala district on the East and Ludhiana district and Sangrur district on the West. The climate of the district is extremely hot in summer and cold in winter. Its climate is characterized as sub tropical continental monsoon climate. The rainfall in the district is almost satisfactory. The actual rainfall in the district was 657.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 tehsils namely Fatehgarh Sahib, Amloh, Khamanon and Bassi Pathana. Moreover, there are 5 towns and 442 villages in the district. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 6, 00,163 out of which 3, 20,795 are males and 2, 79,368 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 871 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 11.55% including 10.57% were males and 12.69% were females. The population density in the district is 509 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 5,172 out of which 2,723 were males and 2,449 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,057 out of which 2,344 were males and 1,713 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Sikh with 71.23% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Punjabi with 89.92%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, wheat, cotton, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agriculture products helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialized but it has some prominent agro based industries. In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 13,08,053 lakhs at current price and Rs. 9,94,613 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 11,66,584 lakhs at current price and Rs. 8,82,495 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 1,77,292 at current price and Rs. 1,34,118 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College, Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Polytechnic College, Mata Gujri ji College, Desh Bhagat Group of Institutions, Regional Institute of Management & Technology (RIMT), Punjab Institute of Management and Technology, Lincoln College of Law, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 79.35% out of which 83.33% are males and 74.8% are females.
During the year 2018, there were 83,808 domestic tourists and 421 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Gurudwara Fatehgarh Sahib in the district was constructed to commemorate the martyrdom of younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh. The Gurudwara Burj Mata Gujri and Gurudwara Shahid Ganj are located within the main complex of Gurudwara Fatehgarh Sahib. Aam Khas Bagh, situated in the district was made not only for public but also for the Emperor Shah Jahan. Sanghol, an ancient site of Harappan culture which is under the maintenance of the Archaeological Survey of India is located in the Khamano block of the district. The present building of the Sanghol Museum was inaugurated on April 10, 1990. Shahgird Di Mazar, a very beautiful tomb of Khawaja Khan, assistant of Ustad Syad Khan is located in the district. Some other places of interest in the district are Floating Restaurant over the Sirhind Canal, Ustad Di Mazar, Mata Chakreshvri Devi Jain temple, Mosque of Sadhana Kasai, etc.