Jalandhar district is a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Jalandhar city. There are many beliefs associated with the name of the district. According to the first theory it is named after a demon king called Jalandhar whose name is even mentioned in the great epics like Puranas and Mahabharta. Some other natives believe that in the ancient times Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of Lava, the son of Lord Rama. As per the third theory, the name of the district is taken from the vernacular term ‘Jalandhar’ meaning area inside the water since the region lays between the two most prominent rivers namely Satluj and Beas. From the archaeological excavations here has been proved that the current region of the Jalandhar district was a part of the Indus Valley Civilization. The modern history of Jalandhar District highlights that Khilafat Movement was at its pick point in the district in the early 1920 with the prime objective to put pressure upon the British rulers to change their policy towards Turkey. Moreover, Mahatma Gandhi and other prominent political leaders of that time expressed their sympathy and support to this movement. Jalandhar district was declared as a 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. The sufferings of the district was also continued even after India got its independence as communal riots started to occur here frequently and exodus of minority communities from both sides of the border led to the partition of the country. Jalandhar district came into existence on 1st September, 1997.
Harbhajan Singh, a distinguished Indian international cricketer and former captain of IPL team Mumbai Indians was born on 3rd July, 1980 at Jalandhar city. In 2009 the Government of India honoured him by the prestigious Padma Shri Award.
Geographically, the district lies at 31033' N latitude, 75058' E longitude and 228 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.40% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,624 sq km. and it bounded by Hoshiarpur district on the North and North East, Kapurthala district on the North West and East and Moga district and Ludhiana district. The climate of the district is characterised as a humid subtropical climate with fairly cool winters and extremely hot summers. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 566.2 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 tehsils namely Jalandhar I, Jalandhar II, Nakodar, Phillaur and Shahkot. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 9 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 5 sub-districts, 21 towns and 922 villages. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 21,93,590 including 11,45,211 Males and 10,48,379 Females. The district has a sex ratio of 915 females for every1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 11.76% out of which 10.10% Males and 13.64% Females. The population density in the district is 836 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 33,829 including 17,809 were males and 16,020 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 19,958 including 11,822 were males and 8,136 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Sikh with 63.56% and 32.75% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Punjabi with 88.15%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, paddy, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Jalandhar is also quite well developed in the industrial sector. The district is famous for the production of sports equipments, leather goods, rubber goods, surgical tool, electrical goods, etc. Each and every place in the district is renowned for production of different industrial products likewise; Kartarpur in the district is one of the biggest exporters of quality furniture. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the industrial sector helps in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 37,05,354 lakh at current price and Rs. 31,20,651 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2016-17 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 33,14,571 lakh at current price and Rs. 27,79,485 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the year 2016-17 was Rs. 1,42,134 at current price and Rs. 1,19,189 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are DAV College, Punjab Technical University, Doaba Collage, Sant Baba Bhag Singh University, Trinity College, B.D Arya Girls Collage, Lyallpur Khalsa College, Lyallpur Khalsa Women’s College, Mata Gujri Institute of Nursing, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 82.48% out of which 86.15% are males and 78.48% are females.
Arun Shourie, an eminent Indian journalist, author and politician who served as the Minister for Telecommunication & Information Technology from 2002-2004 under the Bharatya Janata Party government led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee was born on 2nd November, 1941 at Jalandhar city. He is a member of Bharatya Janata Party.
During the year 2018, there were 23,23,575 domestic tourists and 68,278 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Devi Talab Mandir, situated in the central part of the Jalandhar City is an ancient temple dedicated to Goddess Talab. Near to this temple there is another old temple of Goddess Kali. Tulsi Mandir, devoted to the wife of Jalandhara named Vrinda is located in the district. Natives of the district believe that on those days the demon Jalandhar use to take bath in the tank located on one side of the temple. Shiv Mandir, constructed by Nawab of Sultanpur Lodhi is situated at Gur Mandi near to the Masjid Imam Nasar. Gurdwara Chhevin Padshahi, a holy place in the district which draws pilgrims from far off places. Some other illustrious places of interest in the district are Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum, Gurudwara at Kartarpur, Pushpa Gujral Science City, St Mary’s Cathedral Church, Sanyas Ashram, etc.