Tarn Taran district is a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Tarn Taran Sahib town. It is a sacred place for Sikhs and a historically significant town. During the period of 1590's the fifth Sikh Guru, Shri Arjan Dev Ji founded the town and also constructed the Gurudwara Sri Darbar Sahib at the centre of the town. The strong Sikh family of Dhillon Clan from the Bhangi Sikh Dynasty ruled the place Tarn Taran from the time period 1716 to 1810. It was a renowned centre of the Sikh insurgency during the 1980s and early 1990s. The place Tarn Taran was also believed to be the capital of Khalistan in the future, the proposed Sikh independent nation. During the period of the British rule in the place, the management of the shrines here, including those at Amritsar, was went under the control of a sarbarah or manager, appointed by the deputy commissioner of Amritsar. After India got independence in 1947, Tarn Taran with majority of Sikh population became a part of the Punjab state. In the year 2006, Tarn Taran was carved out from the Amritsar district and emerged as a separate district of Punjab.
Gurbaksh Singh Chahal, an eminent Indian-American internet entrepreneur and writer was born on 17th July, 1982 at Tarn Taran Sahib. At present he is on probation for domestic violence battery and battery. In the year 2008 he wrote a famous book named The Dream: How I Learned the Risks and Rewards of Entrepreneurship and Made Millions.
Geographically, the district lies at 31045' N latitude, 74093' E longitude and 227 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.73% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,414 sq km. and it is bounded by Amritsar district on the North, Firozpur district on the South, Pakistan on the East and Kapurthala district on the West. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 549.0 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wisely the district is divided into 3 tehsils namely Tarn Taran, Patti and Khadur Sahib. Moreover, it comprises 4 towns and 479 villages. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 11,19,627 out of which 5,89,369 are males and 5,30,258 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 900 females for every 1000 males. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Sikh with 93.33% of the total population. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 19.23% including 18.40% were males and 20.16% were females. The district has a population density of 464 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 15,505 out of which 8,420 were males and 7,085 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 10,231 out of which 5,814 were males and 4,417 were females. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Punjabi with 98.99%.
The economy of the district is dependent on agriculture. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Every year a huge of revenue comes from its agricultural products helps in its economy to a great extent. Industrially, also the district is quite well developed. The prominent small and large scale industries in the district are Rana Sugar Distilliries, Cooperative sugar mill, World Famous Fish Market, Asia Largest Poltary Farm, Goindwal Sahib Power Plant Spinning Mills Goindwal Sahib, etc. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 12,59,769 lakh at current price and Rs. 10,17,521 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2016-17 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 11,51,065 lakh at current price and Rs. 9,23,286 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the year 2016-17 was Rs. 93,279 at current price and Rs. 74,821 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Guru Arjun Dev Khalsa College, Kalian Homeopathic College, Majha College for Women, Mata Ganga College for Women, Sewa Devi College, Shaheed Bhagat Singh B. Ed, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Polytechnic College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 67.81% including 73.24% are males and 61.85% are females.
Surinder Singh Kairon, a veteran Indian politician and a member of 10th Lok Sabha from the Taran Taran constituency was born on 8th December, 1927 at Kairon in the district. He was a member of Indian National Congress party.
During the year 2018, there were 17,067 domestic tourists and 2 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well world. Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn Taran, one of the main pious places located in the district was constructed by Sri Guru Arjan Dev JI and within its boundary there is a large Sarovar meaning water pond. Pilgrims from far off places comes to this holy place every year on the day of amavasya. Madan Mohan Mandir, a very old temple situated in the centre of the Tarn Taran city. Another significant temple of the city is Mata Chintpurni Mandir. Natives believe that the Mata Chintpurni deity of the temple was appeared from the ruins at own. St. Thomas Church, an ancient church in the middle of the district was created under the supervision of Bishop of Lahore diocese in the year in 1836. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Gurdwara Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib ji, Baba Bidhi Chand, Khadoor Sahib, Shri Baoli Sahib, Gurdwara Thara Sahib and many more.