Hoshairpur district is a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Hoshairpur town. Recently some excavations had done at various sites in the district proved that earlier, it was a part of Indus Valley Civilization. Legends believe that some places in the district like Dasuya, Bham, Lasara, etc have historical significance since their names are mentioned in the great epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. According to Hieun Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim, before the invasion of Muhammadan the place Hoshiarpur was inhabited by a tribe of Chandrabansi Rajputs, who lived there for a long period. The surrounding regions of the Hoshiarpur district were previously the part of kingdom of Katoch in Jalandhar. At that time the today’s Hoshairpur district was divided between the, rajas of Datarpur and Jaswan. Finally, the British annexed the district at the close of the First Anglo Sikh War in 1846. After sometime the new rulers gave cash pensions to the deposed rajas of Datarpur and Jaswan, but then they expressed a bitter reaction for not allowing to use their former sovereign position. Accordingly, in the year 1848 the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Sikh War led to the rebellion of the disaffected chieftains. They organized a revolt, but the two rajas and the other ringleaders were captured and their estates condemned. The history of the district witnesses to its glorious culture and its importance in the Hindu epics as well. Mythologically it is believe that Teh Dasuya in the district was most probably the kingdom of the King Virat where Pandavas spent their one year exile.
Piara Singh Gill, an eminent Indian nuclear physicist, a pioneer in cosmic ray nuclear physics and the first Director of Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO) of India was born on 28th October, 1911 at Chela near Kot Fatuhi in the Hoshiarpur district.
Geographically, the district lies at 31°53' N latitude, 75°92' E longitude and 228 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 21.18% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,386 sq km. and it is bounded by Kangra district and Una district of Himachal Pradesh on the North East, Gurdaspur district on the North West and Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar district, Jalandhar district and Kapurthala district on the South West. Since the district has abundant hilly terrain and forests hence its climate remains mild throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 798.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 10 developmental blocks namely Hoshiarpur-I, Hoshiarpur-II, Bhunga, Tanda, Dasuya, Mukerian, Talwara, Hajipur, Mahilpur and Garhshankar which serve as prime units of economic development. Moreover, the district comprises 4 sub-districts, 13 towns and 1,385 villages. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 15,86,625 out of which 8,09,057 are males and 7,77,568 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 961 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 7.15% including 5.74% were males and 8.66% were females. The population density in the district is 469 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 19,439 out of which 10,168 were males and 9,271 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 12,786 out of which 7,277 were males and 5,509 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 63.07% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Punjabi with 93.74%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of the population in the district are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are mango, peach, litchi, pear, guava, cauliflower, peas, tomato, cabbage, brinjal, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products helps in its economy to a great extent. The industrial growth in the district is insufficient. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Hoshiarpur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 30,49,484 lakhs at current price and Rs. 23,89,661 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 27,54,733 lakhs at current price and Rs. 21,58,397 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 1,63,972 at current price and Rs. 1,28,476 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. The two most prominent universities in the district are Guru Ravidas Ayurveda University and Punjab University Swami Sarvanand Giri Regional Centre. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to these universities. Some of its recognised educational institutions are D. A. V. College, Saini Bar College, S. D. College, Shri Guru Ram Das College of Nursing, Government Polytechnic, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 84.59% including 88.75% are males and 80.31% are females.
Mangu Ram, a distinguished Indian freedom fighter and politician, associated with the Ghadar Party was born on 14th January, 1886 at Muggowal in the Hoshiarpur district. He was served as the member of Punjab Legislative Assembly from March 1946 to July 1947. In 1946 he joined the Unionist Party, a political party and remained as its member till 1947.
During the year 2018, there were 1,70,385 domestic tourists and 146 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Takhni-Rehmapur Wildlife Sanctuary, lies on the foothills of the Shivalik Range of the Himalayas in the district is covered with dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests. Moreover, it is a home to many rear species of animals. The Hazrat Shah Noor Jamal’s Tomb, located at Saleran village in the district was built in Hijri 1334 has three graves including the grave of a great Muslim saint named Shah Bur Jamal and the graves of his parents. Kamahi Devi Temple, situated almost 11 km. away from the Jhir di Khuhi in the district is believed to have been built by the Pandavas. Earlier, the temple was popularly known as Kamakshi Devi Temple. Sheesh Mahal, located at the Hoshiarpur city was built by Lala Hans Raj Jain in the year 1911. The decoration of the interior walls and roofs of the palace are done by glass work. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Gurdwara Tahli Sahib, Gurdwara Akalgarh, Dera of Baba Charan Singh, Citrus County, Dera Santgarh, etc.