Rupnagar district, a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Rupnagar city. The headquarters town of Rupnagar was earlier popularly known as Rupar or Ropar, which perhaps founded by a Raja named Rokeshar and the place was under his rule during the 11th century. Moreover, the Raja had a son called Rup Sen and he named it after his son’s name. Some unique items were found in the recent excavations comprised earthen bares, statues, coins and many more. These historically significant items proved the fact that the place dates back to Harrappa-Mohanjodharo civilization which crossed the Sutlej river. As per the archaeologists, many things founded in the excavations were belong to Chandra Gupta, Kushan, Hoon and Mughal period. In 1763 A.D. S. Hari Singh Rais of Sialba captured the area and established here his own state. Then his son called Charat Singh declared Ropar as the capital of the state. In 1763 when the downfall of the Sirhind was started, Rupnagar went into the hands of the Sikhs Chief, Hari Singh. The most famous ruler of Ropar state was Raja Bhup Singh , who fought in the anglo-sikhs war of 1945. One of the unforgettable incident of the history of the district is the war of Guru Gobind Singh Ji against Mughal tyranny, exploiters and social evils. It was took place at Sarsa Nangal in the district that the great Guru parted with the family and proceeded to Chamkaur Sahib where two elder Sahibzadas laid down their lives fighting for truth and Guru Sahib left for Machhiwara on a constant struggle. Morinda, Nangal, Kurali, Anandpur Sahib are the main cities in the district. Morinda, one of its prominent cities is well-known as Baghawala, "The City of Gardens". Rupnagar as a separate district came into existence on 1st November, 1966.
Surjit Bindrakhia, a distinguished Punjabi Indian singer was born on 15th April, 1962 at Rupnagar town. He was honoured by a special jury award at the 2004 Filmfare Awards for his contribution to Punjabi music.
Geographically, the district lies at 30°97' N latitude and 76°52' E longitude and 300 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 19.10% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,356 sq km. and it is bounded by Himachal Pradesh on the North and East, Mohali district and Fatehgarh Sahib district on the on the South, Shahid Bhagat Singh district, Ludhiana district and Hoshiarpur district on the West. The climate of the Rupnagar district is characterized by its general dryness, extremely hot summer and a fairly cold winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1011.1 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 sub-districts namely Anandpur Sahib, Chamkaur Sahib, Nangal and Rupnagar. Moreover, it comprises 8 towns and 591 villages. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 6,84,627 out of which 3,57,485 are males and 3,27,142 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 915 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 8.87% including 7.37% were males and 10.56% were females. The population density in the district is 505 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 9,743 out of which 5,000 were males and 4,743 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,711 out of which 2,700 were males and 2,011 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Sikh and Hindu with 52.74% and 44.47% of total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Punjabi with 92.63%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. The district is also industrially well developed. Some of the renowned industries in the district are Punjab Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd, National Fertilizers Ltd, Punjab National Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd, Ranbaxy Laboratories, Rishab Paper Mills Ltd, Morinda Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd, Ropar Thermal Plant, etc. In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 16,35,377 lakhs at current price and Rs. 12,67,367 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 14,75,533 lakhs at current price and Rs. 11,40,331 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 2,00,753 at current price and Rs. 1,55,147 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Indian Institute of Technology, DAV College, Rayat Institute of Engineering & Information Technology, IET Bhaddal Technical Campus, Government College, Bela College of Pharmacy, Ropar Institute of Management And Technology, Rayat Polytechnic and many more. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 82.19% including 87.5% are males and 76.42% are females.
Kanshi Ram, an Indian politician and social reformer who worked for the upliftment and political mobilisation of the Bahujans and Dalits was 15th March, 1934 at Pirthipur Bunga village in the Rupnagar district. He was the founder and national president of the Bahujan Samaj Party from 14th April, 1984 to 17th September, 2003.
During the year 2018, there were 3,78,609 domestic tourists and 7,374 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Earlier, Virasat-e-Khalsa was popularly known as Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex, a museum located at Anandpur Sahib. The museum depicts the vision of the great Gurus, the eternal message of peace and brotherhood delivered by them to the upgradation of the society. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Takhat Sri Keshgarh Sahib, Gurudwara Bhatta Sahib, Bhakra Nangal Dam, Gurudwara Sadabarat, Takhat Sri Keshgarh Sahib, Gurudwara Parivar Vichhora Sahib, Jateshwar Mahadev Temple and many more.