Shahid Bhagat Singh is a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Nawanshahr town. On 7th November, 1995 it was emerged as a separate district of Punjab state since prior to this date it was a part of Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab. In the early period Rahon, a place situated near the river Sutlej was in danger of being flooded so its locals started to migrate to another place named Nawanshahr. In this way Nawanshahr was founded for the first time by the migrants from Rahon. They named it Nawanshahar meaning New City. It was the fortress of the Ghorewaha Rajputs and also to the numerous clans of Jats.
Shahid Bhagat Singh, an eminent Indian socialist considered to be an influential revolutionary during the period of the Indian independence movement was born on 28th September, 1907 at Khatkar Kalan in the district. Mohammed Zahur Khayyam Hashmi, an illustrious Indian music composer was born on 18th February, 1927 at Rahon in the district. He was honoured by many prestigious awards likewise Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in Creative Music in 2007, lifetime achievement award in 2010 and Padma Bhushan in 2011.
Geographically, the district lies at 31°10' N latitude, 76°13' E longitude and 232 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 9.78% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,282 sq km. and it is bounded by Hoshiarpur district on the North, Ludhiana district and Kapurthala district on the South, Rupnagar district on the East and Jalandhar district on the West. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 984.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 tehsils namely Nawanshahr, Balachaur and Banga. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 3 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 8 towns and 458 villages. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 6,12,310 out of which 3,13,291 are males and 2,99,019 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 954 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 4.23% including 2.08% were males and 6.58% were females. The population density in the district is 478 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 8,799 out of which 4,611 were males and 4,188 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,543 out of which 3,196 were males and 2,347 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 65.55% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Punjabi with 94.63%.
The economy of the district is dependent on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, rice, onion, etc. In terms of industrial sector also the district is quite well developed. The district is more or less devoid of economic minerals. In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 12,55,704 lakhs at current price and Rs. 9,60,782 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 11,35,856 lakhs at current price and Rs. 8,65,731 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 1,79,440 at current price and Rs. 1,36,766 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised government educational institutions are Maharaj Bhoori wale Garib Dass Government College, Sikh National College, B.L.M. Girls College, R.K. Arya College, D.A.N. College of Education, Amardeep Singh Shergil Memorial College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 79.78% out of which 85.41% are males and 73.93% are females.
During the year 2018, there were 93,574 domestic tourists and 524 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Gurudwara Nanaksar, situated at Hakimpur village in the district has a beautiful pond at its eastern side. This holy place was also visited by Sikh Guru Hari Rai. Natives of the district believe that the place was visited by Guru Nanak as well. Gurudwara Tahli Sahib Nawanshahr, located in the district was constructed in the memory of the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev called Baba Shri Chand who stayed in the place for 40 days and also meditated there. Gurudwara Bhai Sikh, situated at the Hiyala village of the district is believed to be the native place of Baba Bhai Sikh. Every year on the occasion of Dussehra a big fair is held in the place. Gurudwara Gurpartap, situated at Chak Guru Village, 1 km. away in the west portion of the district was constructed on the land given by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Gurudwara Charan Kanwal, Gurudwara Singh Sabha Nawanshahr, Kirpal Sagar, Mausoleum of Tara Singh Geba, etc.