Baksa district is a district of the Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at Mushalpur town. It was formed by comprising a part of the Nalbari district, Barpeta district, Kamrup district and small portion of the Darrang district. Due to the historic BTC (Bodo land Territorial Council) accord signed on 10th February, 2003 formed BTAD (Bodo land Territorial Autonomous District) with four districts namely Kokrajhar, Chirang, Baksa and Udalguri. The place of Baksa was declared as a separate district on 1st June, 2004. Baksa started to perform its functions as a district from 1st June 2004, after Dr. Anwaruddin Choudhury of the Assam Civil Service was appointed as its first Deputy Commissioner. It started working from PWD Inspection Bungalow of Barama on the NH 31 till it was transferred to Mushalpur in the late 2010. Moreover, there are lots of confusions regarding the name of the place, 'Baksa'. A huge number of its natives believe that in earlier days it was renowned as 'Bagsa' instead of 'Baksa'. There is a very popular assumption among the people that originally the word 'Baksa' is spell as 'Bangsa' meaning a farmhouse and a corridor since at that time the Bhutanese king and subjects used it for the purpose of trade and a way of passage to the plains. 'Bangsa' (Bagsa or Baksa) was in fact one of the most significant 'Dooars' of Bhutan. Whereas according to Bodo source the name of the place was taken from a kind of rice grain which is popularly known as "Bagsa" in this region. This is a broken and uncleaned product of the rice grain which is gained after milling the rice.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°66'N latitude and 91°36'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 110 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 22.91% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,457 sq km. and it is bounded by Bhutan on the north, Udalguri district on the east, the districts of Barpeta, Nalbari and Kamrup on the south and Chirang district on the west. The principal rivers in the district are Beki, Manas, Pagladia, Puthimari, Pahumara, Kaldia and Barnadi. The climate of the district can be characterised as sub-tropical in nature with warm and humid summer and fairly cool and dry winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1780.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district divided into 6 revenue circles namely Baska, Baganpar, Barama, Jalah, Tamulpur and Goreswar. It comprises 13 sub-district, 2 towns and 690 villages. The administrative language in the district is Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 9,50,075 including 4,81,330 are males and 4,68,745 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 974 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 966 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 137.91% including 135.43% were males and 140.51% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 82.40% of the total population. The population density in the district is 387 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Assamese with 37.77%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 15,336 out of which 7,320 were males and 8,016 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 7,176 out of which 4,596 were males and 2,580 were females. The major schedule caste population in the district is Namasudra with 42.03% of the total population. On the other hand, the major schedule tribe population in the district is Boro and Borokachari with 87.13% of the total population.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on the agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, wheat, paddy, pulses, etc. Inspite of launching many advance agricultural schemes by the government yet still its farmers are stick to the old agricultural techniques. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. On the other hand the district is scantily industrialised since there are only a few agro based industries. In the year 2018-2019 the Gross District Product in the district was Rs. 5,76,787 lakhs at current price and Rs. 4,12,036 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 1,44,445 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,06,973 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 56,194 at current price and Rs. 41,667 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of the most recognised educational institutions in the district are B.B. Kishan College, Barama College, Dhamdhama Junior College, Goreswar College, Mushalpur College, Salbari Junior College, ST. John's H.S. School,Tamulpur College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 69.25% including 77.03% are males and 61.27% are females. The literate population in the district is 5,72,837 out of which 3,22,614 are males and 2,50,223 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 3,77,238 out of which 1,58,716 are males and 2,18,522 are females.
Biswajit Daimary, a veteran Indian politician from the Bodoland People's Front was born on 4th February, 1971 at Suagpur town in the Baksa district. During the year 2008-2014 he represents Assam in Rajya Sabha. Naba Kumar Saraniya, an eminent Indian politician and the current Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha from the Kokrajhar constituency from 2014 was born on 1st May, 1969 at Dighalipaar in the Baksa district.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Most of the part of the Mansa Tiger Reserve is included within the boundary of the Baksa district. Both the Manas National Park and Tiger Project are located at the western side of the district at the foothills of Bhutan. Manas Soushi Khongkhor, an eco-tourism spot is located on the middle part of the Baksa district. Exactly, it is placed on the mouth of the Pagladia River. This place is full of mesmerising natural sceneries with just situated adjacent with Bhutan hills which attracts a large number of picnic lovers every year in the month of December and January. Moinapukhuri, located in the northern part of the Mushalpur in the Baksa district is the only trekking site. The main attractions are dead lake, a picnic spot, place for puja, etc. Bogamati is a very wonderful place that fully blessed by the Mother Nature. It is a perfect destination for nature’s admirer.