Morigaon district is a district of Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at Morigaon town. The history of the Morigaon district is not very clear. The history of Arimatta, a famous traditional ruler of the region belonged to the Keot(Kaibarta) communityis full of vagueness as well. When Arimatta was died, his son named Jongalbalahu came to rule over the place. But after some time Jongalbalahu was killed by the Kacharis (a tribe) with a bamboo spear near Kajalimukh. Additionally, the legend also believe that Jongalbalahu to escape his pursuers submerged himself in Kollong River and emerge at Raha to quench his thirst and again dived here to emerge at Jagi. From this incident were derived the names of present day Raha and Jagi. A writer named Bhim Singh has threw some light on the history of the present day Morigaon town and its neighbouring areas. According to his writings during different periods of time the place was ruled by different rulers. At that there were time two princes from Darrang called Supradhvaj and Makardhvaj, who by crossing the mighty Brahmaputra fled from their native soil because of some internal clashes. Later they settled down at Bahakajari. Then Supradhvaj married the daughter of Mangalsingh, the King of Baghara. As a result Supradhvaj became the seventh king of the region. During the age of Lachit Borphukan, another two princes from Darrang called Ram Singh and Bhimsingh crossed the Brahmaputra river in order to search a plain land. Since Bhim Singh was disliked by the local people, hence, he left Brahmaputra and then settled down near the Mori Beel. Finally, this place became popularly known as Morigaon. On 29th September, 1989 Morigaon was emerged as a separate district in the map of Assam.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°25'N latitude, 92°34'E longitude and 43 m altitude.In the year 2021, there was a total 11.37% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,551 sq km. and it is bounded by Brahmaputra River on the North, Karbi Anglong district on the South, Nagaon district on the East and Kamrup district on the West. The climate of the district is characterised as sub-tropical climate with semi dry hot in summer and cold in winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1140.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-districts, 6 towns and 632 villages. There are 3 Assam Legislative Assembly constituencies in this district namely Jagiroad, Morigaon and Laharighat out of which Jagiroad is designated for the Scheduled Castes. All these three are included in the Nowgong Lok Sabha constituency.The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 9,57,423 out of which 4,86,651 are males and 4,70,772 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 967 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 956 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 23.34% including 21.99% were males and 24.76% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Muslim and Hindu with 52.56% and 47.20% of the total population. The population density in the district is 617 (persons per sq. km.). According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Assamese and Bengali with 73.02% and 22.19%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 25,853 out of which 13,834 were males and 12,019 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,481 out of which 1,871 were males and 1,610 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are potato, sugarcane, mustard, vegetables, jute, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. But the district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few small scale industries. In 2006 the Indian government declared Morigaon as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 6,07,283 lakhs at current price and Rs. 4,26,841 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 1,45,195 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,12,403 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 52,659 at current price and Rs. 36,640 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well-known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Muhila Home Model School, Sankar Dev Bidya Niketan, Azarbari M E School, Bhomora Guri High School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Habi Baranga Bari Adarsha High School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 68.03% including 71.9% are males and 64.04% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 5,39,902 including 2,89,698 are males and 2,50,204 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 4,17,521 including 1,96,953 are males and 2,20,568 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in the flood plains of the Brahmaputra River in the district covers an area of 38.81 sq km. One horned rhino of this sanctuary is world famous. Kachasila Hill in the district has a temple of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati which was constructed in the 9th century. Many beautiful idols of Lord Ganesha are also present in the temple. Pilgrims from far off places comes to this temple in order to offer their prayers. Sivakunda, a water fall in the Amsoi hills of the district is a picturesque spot which allures many visitors every year. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Mayong, Deosal, Sitajakhala and many more.