Udalguri district is a district of the Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at Udalguri town. The district got its name from its headquarters town, Udalguri. There are three different point of views in context of the etymology of Udalguri.Some of its natives believe that the name is taken from the term Odal means a tree and Guri means the roots or surrounding of the tree since it was originally developed around an Odal tree. On the other hand some other believes that the name of the place is derived from the name of a famous sage called Uddalaka since earlier it was a hermitage of the sage. As per the third point of view, the name is derived from two Bodo words-the first word, Ordla means wide and spacious and the second word, Gundri means powdered object. For the first time Udalguri was emerged as a separate district on 14th June, 2004 as one of the four districts under the Bodoland Territorial Council. Earlier, Udalguri was a part of the Darrang district. The territories of the presentday’s district were earlier included in the Udalguri sub-division of the undivided district. In this district all the three major religions of India likewise Hindu, Muslim and Christian lives together happily. This was a very peaceful place till mid 80s but various communal clashes took place from time to time. Late Jojaram Sharma, one of the prominent India freedom fighters from Assam was the son of the district.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°75'N latitude and 92°10'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 180 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 20.53% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,012 sq km. and it is bounded by Bhutan and West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Sonitpur district on the east, Darrang district on the south and Baksa district on the west. The principal river that flows through the district is Brahmaputra River. The major tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are Pachnoi, Dhansiri, Jiya Dhansiri, Mora Dhansiri, Noa, Kulsi, Dipila and Bornoi. The climate of the district is characterised as a sub-tropical humid climate with semi-dry hot summer and cold winter. Most of its heavy rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1488.1 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has 2 sub-divisions namely Udalguri and Bhergaon. These 2 sub-divisions are further divided into 9 revenue circles namely Udalguri, Majbat, Harisinga, Kalaigaon, Khoirabari, Dalgaon, Patharighat, Mangaldoi and Dhekiajuli. Moreover, the district comprises 3 towns and 800 villages. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 8,31,668 including 4,21,617 are males and 4,10,051 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 973 (females per 1000 males) and child ratio of 973 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 73.64% of the total population. The population density in the district is 413 (persons per sq. km.). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 55.72% including 53.78% were males and 57.76% were females. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Bodo and Assamese with 26.90% and 22.62%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 15,912 out of which 7,764 were males and 8,148 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,520 out of which 3,756 were males and 1,764 were females. The major schedule caste population in the district are Namasudra and Kaibartta\Jaliya with 38.95% and 19.47% of the total population. The major schedule tribe population in the district is Boro\Borokachari with 81.75% of the total population.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agricultural activities in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, wheat, paddy, pulses, etc. In spite of launching many advanced agricultural schemes yet till today its farmers are stick to their old farming techniques. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. But the district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few agro based industries. In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 6,12,565 lakhs at current price and Rs. 4,32,327 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 1,46,915 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,11,149 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 74,768 at current price and Rs. 55,077 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Udalguri College and Tangla College are the two most recognised colleges of the district. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 65.41% including 72.58% are males and 58.05% are females. The literate population in the district is 4,69,926 out of which 2,64,326 are males and 2,05,600 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 3,61,742 out of which 1,57,291 are males and 2,04,451 are females.
Mukunda Ram Choudhary, an eminent Indian politician and elected as a member of the Assam Legislative Assembly in the year 2013 from Kalaigaon Assembly constituency in the Udalguri district was born in the district. Santiuse Kujur, a veteran Indian politician and a Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) elected from Assam was born on 26th October, 1973 at Khokhabasti Village in the Udalguri district. He is a member of the Indian National Congress.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Bhairabkunda, a popular picnic spot full of mesmerising natural sceneries is located in the Udalguri district. It is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. Orang (Rajiv Gandhi) wildlife Sanctuary, situated near Udalguri and Sonitpur, on the north bank of Brahmaputra covers an area of 78.81 sq km. It was established as a sanctuary in 1985 and later declared as a National Park on 13th April, 1999. Bornadi Sanctuary, situated on the foothills of Himalayas covers an area of 20 sq km. This place has a great rare variety of fauna and flora.