Lakhimpur district is a district of Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at North Lakhimpur town. The natives of the district believe that the district got its name “Lakhimpur” from the word “Lakshmi”, the goddess of prosperity. Here paddy is locally called as “Lakhimi”. On the other hand the meaning of the word “pur” is “full”. Therefore both the terms Lakhimi and pur together means a place full of paddy or the place where paddies are grown abundantly. The second meaning is 'The City of Wealth and Prosperity'. Some others believe that the term Lakhimpur is originated from Lakhsmi Devi, the mother of Bhuyan Raja who was the descendent of King Arimatta. The name Lakhimpur was taken from the name "Lakshmipur" which was given by the Chutiya king called Lakshminaryan who ruled this region during the 15th century. After sometime, it was changed to Lakhimpur by the Baro-Bhuyans, when they were made feudal lords of the region by the Ahoms after the downfall of the Chutiya kings and was kept in memory of the land (in present-day Darrang district), which they lost to the Koch kingdom. According to the Lakhimpur District Gazette (1976:4), the then Governor General had issued a proclamation on July, 1839 through which he declared the place of Lakhimpur as a separate district. On 2nd October, 1971 the district was divided into two sub divisions namely Dhemaji and North Lakhimpur. After some time in the year 1989 it was again reorganized with two new subdivisions such as Dhakuakhana and North Lakhimpur since Dhemaji came into existence as a separate district. Earlier, the district was popularly known as “Koliapani” because at the very beginning till 1950 there was no any road communication to this place.
Raaj J Konwar, an illustrious Indian singer and composer was born on 7th October, 1975 at Nakari in the North Lakhimpur. He has sung many songs in Bollywood and Assamese films. Uddhab Bharali, a renowned innovator was born on 7th April, 1962 at North Lakhimpur. Bharali has about 118 innovations to his credit, starting from the late 1980s.
Geographically, the district lies at 27°95'N latitude and 80°78'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 88 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 13.64% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,277 sq km. and it bounded by Siang and Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Dhemaji district and Subansiri River on the on the east, Majuli Sub Division of Jorhat district on the south and Gahpur sub division of Sonitpur district on the west. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Subansiri, Ranganadi and Dikrong. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2486.7 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 towns and 1,184 villages. The district comprises 2 sub divisions namely North Lakhimpur and Dhakuakhana. Furthermore, North Lakhimpur sub-division consists of 4 police stations such as North Lakhimpur, Boginadi, Laluk and Bihpuria. Whereas Dhakuakhana subdivision has two police stations likewise Dhakuakhana and Ghilamara. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 10,42,137 including 5,29,674 are males and 5,12,463 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 968 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 959 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 17.22% out of which 16.24% were males and 18.26% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 76.49% of the total population. The population density in the district is 458 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Assamese, Miri/Mishing and Bengali with 57.80%, 17.64% and 12.96%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 18,984 out of which 9,840 were males and 9,144 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,136 out of which 3,324 were males and 1,812 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on the agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, tea, mustard, sugarcane, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few small scale agro based industries in the district. The district is famous for its forestry products. Here, the forests are mainly tropical rain forest. Some of the important reserved forests include Ranga Reserve, Kakoi Reserve, Dulung Reserve and Pabho Reserve. The great Subansiri River in the district is associated with many legends like once it was famous for the gold washing. But till today there is no any major exploration of minerals in the district, except some minor exploration for petroleum by ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) near the Dhakuakhana region. In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 8,31,454 lakhs at current price and Rs. 5,88,669 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 1,72,302 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,30,561 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 67,649 at current price and Rs. 48,623 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are North Lakhimpur College, Lakhimpur Girls College, Lakhimpur Commerce College, Lakhimpur Law College, Dhakuakhana College, Rev Williams Junior College, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Brookfield School Jay, North Lakhimpur Govt Boys' Higher Secondary School, Lakhimpur Academy HS school, North Lakhimpur Govt Girls' Higher Secondary School, Brahmaputra Valley Academy, Genius Academy, John Firth Christian English High School, BBCM Shankardev Bidya Niketan, Sangam Academy, St. Mary's High School, Ghilamara Town HS School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 77.2% including 83.52% are males and 70.67% are females. The literate population in the district is 6,83,486 out of which 3,75,552 are males and 3,07,934 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 3,58,651 out of which 1,54,122 are males and 2,04,529 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Moitry Ashram, an eminent ashram mainly associated with the Gandhian philosophy and maintained all by women is located in the district. Furthermore, the tea gardens and fish farms at Saijuli in the district also attract many travellers from far off distance place. Bordoibam Bilmukh Wildlife Sanctuary and Pobha Sanctuary in Lakhimpur district are the perfect destinations for nature’s lovers. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Lilabari, Leteku Pukhuri, Maghnowa Doll, Madhabdev Than Rangajan, Belaguri Satra, Badala Satra, Phulani Than, Basudev Than (Dhakuakhana) and many more.