Nagaon district is a district of Assam with its administrative headquarters located at Nagaon town. Earlier, the densely populated areas of the present day Nagaon was spelt as Nowgong. In the late 1810s during the subsequent rule of Burmese, it was amongst the chosen targets of violence. At that time there was no any strong leader to stand and to organize a resistance movement against the Burmese. Then the British came and compelled the Burmese to go back from Assam. As a result the people of the region breathed a sigh of relief after the emergence of British. In 1826 a treaty called treaty of Yandaboo was made and because of that treaty this region of the province passed off into the hands of the British silently. Nagaon as a separate district came into existence in the year 1832. The famous Vaishnavite reformer Sankardeva, who brought a Renaissance in the Assamese society, was the son of Batadrowa, place in the district. Batadrowa in the district is located in the very heartland of Assam, it lies directly at the center of the entire northeast of India. Earlier perhaps the old British administrators jocularly described Nagaon as a district of 3 c’s: chickens, children and cases. In the older records it was found that the region was also popularly known as Khagarijan.
Dr. Bhabendra Nath Saikia, an illustrious novelist, short story writer and film director was born in the year 1932 at Nagaon town in the district. He was honoured with many reputable awards including Sahitya Academy in 1976 and Padma Shri in 2001 for his extra ordinary contributions in the field of literature.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°35'N latitude, 92°69'E longitude and 61 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 23.02% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area and it is bounded by Sonitpur district and River Brahmaputra on the North, Karbi Anglong district and Dima Hasao districton the South, Karbi Anglong district and Golaghat district on the East and Marigaon district on the West. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 771.1 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 10 sub-districts, 17 towns and 1,412 villages. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 28,23,768 out of which 14,39,112 are males and 13,84,656 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 962 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 964 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 22.00% including 20.84% were males and 23.23% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Muslim and Hindu with 55.36% and 43.39%. The population density in the district is 711 (persons per sq. km.). According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Assamese and Bengali with 62.84% and 28.62%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 76,812 out of which 39,002 were males and 37,810 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 13,606 out of which 7,802 were males and 5,804 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on both the agricultural as well as industrial sectors. The district is popularly known as the Rice Bowl of Assam. But flood is a big obstruction in the development of this sector. Though some highly advanced measures has already been taken to control the flood. The district is rich in natural resources as well. The renowned perfume industry of Assam named Agar perfume industry is located at Hojai, which contributes in its economy to a great extent. Sometime its economy is also based on fisheries and forestry products. On the other hand the district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few small scale industries like tea industry, jute industry, sugar mills, etc. In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 15,28,097 lakhs at current price and Rs. 11,39,200 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 3,48,019 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,64,328 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 61,021 at current price and Rs. 45,321 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Kendriya Vidyalaya, Christ Jyoti School, Nowgong Mission High School, St. Ignatius Loyola School, Little Flower School, Nagaon English Academy, Anandaram Dhekial Phukan College, Khagorijan College, Nowgong Girls' College, Nowgong Law College, G.N.D.G. Commerce College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 72.37% including 76.51% are males and 68.07% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 17,10,716 including 9,21,850 are males and 7,88,866 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 11,13,052 including 5,17,262 are males and 5,95,790 are females.
Gopinath Bordoloi, a veteran Indian politician and the first Chief Minister of Assam was born on 6th June, 1890 at Raha in the district. The then Governor of Assam called Jayram Das Doulatram conferred him with the title "Lokapriya" meaning loved by all. The Government of India honoured him with the prestigious Bharat Ratna Award in 1999. Dev Kant Barooah, an eminent Indian politician who served as the President of the Indian National Congress during the emergency period from 1975 to 1977 was born on 22nd February, 1914 in the district.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Samaguri Bill, popularly known as Pokhi Tirtha, is a sanctuary where migratory birds from different place of the world come mainly in winter season. The Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, situated at Lowkhowa, 25 km. away from Nagaon town in the district covers an area of 70.13 sq km. It is basically famous for the Great Indian one-horned rhinoceros. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Rock garden amusement park and Tanz Water Park, Champawati Kunda, Kaliabor, Silghat, Hojai, Jugijan, Doboka and many more.