Barpeta district is a district of Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at Barpeta town. Barpeta is a significant religious place and popularly known by various names likewise Tatikuchi, Porabhita, Mathura, Vrindavan, Choukhutisthan, Nabaratna-Sabha and many more. When the great saint Shrimanta Sankardeva came to Barpeta, he started numerous satras (religious places) in this region and because of these satras, the place was changed into a religious place. Thus, the Barpeta town is often called as 'Boikunthapuri Dham' as well. Prior to the British rule, the place Barpeta was a vital part of the Koch-Hajo and the Ahom Kingdom. The region, Barpeta was ruled by different rulers during different periods of time such as the Varmans (380-654), the Salasthamas (655-985), the Palas (985-1260), the Kamatas (1260-1509) and the Koches from 1509. The annexation of the place by the Mughals led to the end of the Koch rule. The place was flourished to a great level during the period of Kamata and Koch rulers. After sometime, huge destruction of its life and property took place when the Maans was attacked from the Myanmar side. During that invasion even the Barpeta Satra was demolished. Thus in order to make peace British army entered in the territory of Barpeta and threw out all the invaders. But with the starting of British rule, Mouzadari system came into effect in this region. In the year 1841 Barpeta came out as a Civil Sub Division and then John Batlor was appointed as its first administrator. As a part of policy of exploitation, land-revenue rates were suddenly increased which resulted in a number of peasant unrest in between 1893-94 particularly in Bajali and Sarukhetri area. Large number of arrests were carried out to foil attempts of unrest. The Lachima up rising is one of such prominent example of peasant revolt against the British rule. Raijor Sabha constituted during this period raised the banner of revolt. The role of the natives of this place is also very important during the period of Indian struggle for independence. Madan Chandra Barman and Rauta Koch of Barpeta were the first martyrs who sacrificed their lives during the Quit India Movement of 1942.
Rameshwar Pathak, an eminent Kamrupi Lokgeet singer was born on 1st March, 1938 at Bhella in the Barpeta district. He was honoured by the prestigious Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in the year 1997.
Geographically, the district lies at 26032'N latitude, 91001'E longitude and 35 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 5.05% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,282 sq km. and it is bounded by Bhutan Hills on the North, Kamrup district and Goalpara district on the South, Nalbari district on the East and Bongaigaon district on the West. The climate of the district can be characterized as a subtropical climate with hot humid summers and fairly winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 3017.2 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district comprises 9 sub-districts, 9 towns and 835 villages. It is divided into eight Assam Legislative Assembly constituencies namely Barpeta, Baghbor, Bhawanipur, Chenga, Jania, Patacharkuchi, Sarukhetri and Sorbhog. Sorbhog is in the Kokrajhar Lok Sabha constituency while the other 5 are in the Barpeta Lok Sabha constituency. The administrative language in the district is Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 16,93,622 out of which 8,67,004 are males and 8,26,618 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 953 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 961 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 2.82% including 2.17% were males and 3.51% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Muslim with 70.74% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Assamese and Bengali with 36.15% and 61.74%. The population density in the district is 742 (persons per sq. km.). In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 52,008 including 28,504 were males and 23,504 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,516 including 3,632 were males and 2,884 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agriculture. Most of the people in the district are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. Forestry is the secondary income source of the district since it is situated near the Manas National Park; one of the largest forests of Assam. The district is scantily industrialised but it has some small scale industries of woodworks, toy making, brass products, gold ornaments, etc. In 2006 the Indian government declared Barpeta as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2009-2010 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 3,17,596 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 2,31,739 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 2,16,846 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,63,962 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 14,815 at Current Price and Rs. 11,202 at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 63.81% including 69.29% are males and 58.06% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 8,97,058 including 4,99,038 are males and 3,98,020 are females. In the same way the total number of illiterates in the district is 7,96,564 including 3,67,966 are males and 4,28,598 are females.
Mahendra Mohan Choudhury, a distinguished freedom fighter and politician was born in the year 1908 in the Barpeta district. He held the post of Chief Minister of Assam from 1970 to 1972.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts country as well as world. Sundaridiya Satra, located near the Barpeta town has played a vital role in propagating the Vaishnavism. This Satra was founded by the great saint Shree Madhavdeva who composed two devotional books in this place named 'Bhakti Ratnakar' and 'Namghosa'. Patbaushi Satra, located about 2 km. away in the northern portion of the Barpeta town is the most famous cultural centre from where Satriya culture, art forms and literature spread far and wide. Pari Hareswar Devalaya in the district is a renowned temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is believed that the world famed dance form 'Devadasi Dance' is originated from this temple. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Ganakkuchi Satra, Baradi Satra, Syed Shahnur Dewan Dargah, Manas National Park, Brass Metal Industry of Sarthebari, etc.