Tinsukia district is a district of the Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at Tinsukia town. During the medieval period it was a significant part of the Assam’s famous, Chutiya kingdom. Once the city of Tinsukia was popularly known as Bengmara. Later when a member of the former Chutia royal family named Sarbananada Singha established his capital at Rangagarh, situated in the bank of river Guijan at that time it was declared as the capital of the Motok Kingdom. After sometime in 1791 AD, he shifted his capital to the Bangmara city, located at the heart of Tinsukia. It was made by King Sarbananda Singha with the help of his Minister called Gopinath Barbaruah (alias Godha). At the very beginning after independence, it was a part of the Dibrugarh district but after sometime it was declared as the 23rd district of Assam on 1st October, 1989. During the rule of Sarbananda Singha, he had dug many tanks in this place namely Chauldhuwa Pukhuri, Kadamoni pukhuri, Da Dharua Pukhuri, Mahdhuwa Pukhuri, Bator Pukhuri, Logoni Pukhuri, Na-Pukhuri, Devi Pukhuri, Kumbhi Pukhuri, Rupahi Pukhuri, etc. Apart from these ponds he also constructed numerous roads in different parts of the Muttack region likewise Godha-Borbaruah road, Rangagarah road, Rajgor road, Hatiali road, etc. In the year 1823, the British first discovered tea plants in the place of Sadiya and then for the first time tea plantation started in Chabua near Tinsukia. In 1882, the Dibru-Sadiya Railway was opened to traffic by the Assam Railway & Trading Company, centred on Tinsukia, and a turning point in the economic development of north-east India.
Bhupen Hazarika, an eminent Indian lyricist, musician, singer, poet and film-maker was born on 8th September, 1926 at Sadiya in the district. He is also popularly known as Sudhakantha. He was honoured by many prestigious awards likewise Padma Vibhushan in 2012, Padma Shri in 1977, Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1992, Padma Bhushan in 2001, Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship in 2008, Asom Ratna in 2009 and many more. Joi Barua, an illustrious Indian singer and music composer was born at Digboi town in the district. In the year 2010 Joi was awarded the Best Debut Award for his album Joi- Looking Out of the Window at the Big Music Awards organised by Big 92.7 FM, Guwahati.
Geographically, the district lies at 27°49'N latitude and 95°36'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 116 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 41.78% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,790 sq km. and it is bounded by Arunachal Pradesh in the East-South, Dibrugarh district in the South-west and Dhemaji district in the North. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Brahmaputra, Lohit, Buri Dehing and Dibru. The climate of the district can be characterised as a humid subtropical climate with summer, winter and monsoon forming the seasonal cycle. It remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1676.1 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 tehsils namely Tinsukia, Sadiya, Margherita and Doomdooma. Moreover, it comprises 13 towns and 1,168 villages. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 13,27,929 including 6,80,231 are males and 6,47,698 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 952 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 960 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 15.47% out of which 13.16% were males and 17.99% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 88.96% of the total population. The population density in the district is 350 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Assamese, Hindi and Bengali with 47.81%, 25.47% and 10.21%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 26,681 out of which 13,577 were males and 13,104 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,922 out of which 3,500 were males and 3,422 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. Sericulture, fishing and driftwood business are some extra source of income for the natives of the district. Rice is the chief agricultural product in the district. Industrially also the place of Tinsukia is quite well developed. The oldest oil refinery of Asia is located at Digboi whereas the other places of the district like Margherita and Ledo are famous for open cast coal mining. Tinsukia is one of the renowned commercial centres in Assam. Though it is an industrial district, yet it produces a huge amount of tea, oranges, ginger and other citrus fruits. The district is also fortunate enough to have a cosmetic plant of Hindustan Unilever (HUL). Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the prominent industries in the district helps in its economy to great extent. In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 24,74,012 lakhs at current price and Rs. 19,21,507 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 4,16,583 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,77,508 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 1,51,174 at current price and Rs. 1,17,319 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Kendra Vidyalaya, St. Stephen's High School, Vivekananda Kendra Vidyalaya, Senairam High Secondary School, A New High School, Guru Teg Bahadur Academy, Bhagwat Vidyamandir High School, Don Bosco High School, Tinsukia College, Women's College, ACE College of Commerce, G.S. Lohia Girl's College, Pinewood Residential Jr. Sc. College, B.B. Memorial Jr. College, Tinsukia Law College, D.H. Memorial College, Tinsukia Commerce College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 69.66% including 77.19% are males and 61.73% are females. The literate population in the district is 7,98,322 out of which 4,53,449 are males and 3,44,873 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 5,29,607 out of which 2,26,782 are males and 3,02,825 are females.
The district has many centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Digboi is a place in the district which has the privilege to have two modern wonders of the world likewise a hundred-year-old oil field still producing the oil and the Asia’s oldest operating oil refinery. The place of Digboi has numerous mesmerising natural sceneries with some beautiful blue hills and emerald green tea plantations. National Oil Park, located in the Digboi town has an oil museum and a wildlife sanctuary. It is a perfect place for nature’s lovers. War Cemetery is a place in the Digboi where the belligerent Japanese came close to within three days marching distance of Digboi during the World War II. Margherita is famous for the tea gardens, plywood factories and coal mines along with some amazing picnic spots. The greenery of the tea gardens here offers mental relaxation to its visitors. Digboi can also be called as a Golfing Resort with eight golf courses.