Karimganj district is a district of the state of Assam with its administrative headquarters located at Karimganj town. For the better understanding of the history of the district, it is divided into four specific periods i.e. early period, middle age, British Era and the country's partition period. But the very early history of the district is quite vague. Moreover, there is no any clear evidence of that period. In the 7th Century AD, the Samatata Kingdom of the East Bengal captured the Karimganj region along with the foothills of North Cachar Hills. Then, in 10th century AD, one of the renowned kings named King Srichandra of the Chandra Dynasty of Eastern Bengal occupied this region and included it within his Vanga Kingdom. In 1765, when British came to the place and then the Sylhet district under which Karimganj was a part annexed by the British East India Company. Under the British rule in 1878 the place of Karimganj was declared as a sub-division of the Sylhet district with its headquarters at Karimganj town. Finally, after India got its independence sin the year 1947, most of Sylhet district merged into the East Pakistan, which at that time came out as an independent nation named Bangladesh in 1971 including three-and-half thana areas of the Karimganj sub-division. This truncated Karimganj sub-division was incorporated in the Cachar district of Assam as a full-fledged sub-division. Later on 1st July, 1983 the status of Karimganj as a sub-division was upgraded to a district. And then Karimganj town was declared as the district headquarters of the newly formed district, Karimganj.
Syed Mujtaba Ali, an illustrious Bengali author, journalist, travel enthusiast, academician, scholar and linguist was born on 13th September, 1904 at Karimganj town. He lived in many countries likewise, Bangladesh, India, Germany, Afghanistan and Egypt.
Geographically, the district lies at 24061'N latitude and 92038'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 244 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 47.07% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,809 sq km. and it is bounded by Bangladesh and Cachar district on the North, states of Mizoram and Tripura on the South, Bangladesh and Tripura on the West and Hailakandi district on the East. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Kushiara, Longai and Shingla. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 3125.1 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 tehsils or development circles namely Karimganj, Badarpur, Nilambazar, Patharkandi and Ramkrishna Nagar. Moreover, it comprises 7 towns and 936 villages. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 12,28,686 including 6,25,864 are males and 6,02,822 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 963 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 21.90% out of which 20.90% were males and 22.95% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 42.48% and 56.36% of the total population. The population density in the district is 679 (persons per sq. km.). According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Bengali and Hindi with 86.85% and 7.53%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 37,368 including 19,431 were males and 17,937 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,944 including 2,726 were males and 2,218 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. Since the agricultural technology uses by the farmers are very poor in nature hence its production level is also very low. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Paddy and rice are the chief agricultural products in the district. The district suffers from lack of infrastructure and poor communication facilities. Industrially, also the district is quite well developed. It is an important centre of trade and commerce in the North East India. Karimganj is also a borders trade centre and import-export business worth crores of rupees is carried out through the custom trade point at Dakbangla Ghat in the town and Sutarkandi Custom Station. Tea and rubber are the major plantation crops in the district. The native of the district earns their extra income from the fishery because it has a huge number of rivers, swamps, ponds and other natural water bodies. The district is also rich in forestry products likewise timber, bamboo, cane, stone and sand. In the year 2009-2010 (E) Gross Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 3,27,882 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 2,39,445 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2007-2008 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 2,24,705 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,69,164 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2007-2008 the per capita income or NDDP, at factor cost was Rs. 20,093 at Current Price and Rs. 15,127 at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 78.22% including 84.12% are males and 72.09% are females. The literate population in the district is 7,95,297 including 4,35,942 are males and 3,59,355 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 4,33,389 including 1,89,922 are males and 2,43,467 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Son Beel, very famous as the largest wetland of Karimganj district is located in the southern part of Assam. The hills that present at the east and west of the Son Beel create mesmerising natural scenery. But unfortunately, due to some bad and corrupted people the size of the wetland is reducing day by day. On the other hand very beautifully, the significant river of the district named, Shingla River passes through the Beel. Malegarh Crematorium of Sepoy Mutiny Soldiers is considered as a historic place. During the time of the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 some more than 50 warriors has sacrificed their lives and they were cremated this place of Malegarh in the district of Karimganj. Agriculture Research Centre, an eminent agricultural research centre located at Akbarpur in the district which chief aim is to produce the grains of high quality. Furthermore, it offers the training on the agriculture and acts as a helping hand for the farmers. Eolabari Tea Estate, located at a distance of 15 kms from the district headquarter is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Suterkandi-Indo-Bangladesh Border, Badarpurghat’s historical fort, Cacher Paper mill, Khashpur’s Palace of Kachari Rajas, etc.