Parbhani district, a part of the Aurangabad division is a district of Maharashtra state with its administrative headquarters located at Parbhani city. There is an interesting story associated with the name of the district. In ancient times Parbhani was popularly known as Prabhavati nagari since it has a large temple of Goddess Prabhavati. The name Prabhavati means goddess Lakshmi and Parvati. But with the passage of time the earlier name Prabhavati was changed to Parbhani, the present name. A major part of the current territory of the district was divided between Pathri and Washim sarkars of Berar Subah of the Mughal Empire from 1596 until 1724. After the battle of Sakharkheda, in 1724 the Nizam's rule was started in the region. When the re-organization of the states is made in 1956, at that time Parbhani along with the other districts of Marathwada merged into the Bombay State. On 1st May, 1960 when Maharashtra state was emerged, Parbhani became a part of it.
Geographically, the district lies at 19026'N latitude, 76077'E longitude and 347 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.65% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 6,214 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 26th in the state and 162nd in India. It is bounded by Hingoli district and Buldhana district on the North, Latur district on the South, Nanded district and Hingoli district on the East and Beed district and Jalna district on the West. Natives of the district experiences extreme hot in the summer. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 604.1 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 9 tehsils namely Parbhani, Gangakhed, Sonpeth, Pathri, Manwath, Palam, Sailu, Jintur and Purna. Moreover, it comprises 8 towns and 830 villages. The administrative language in the district is Marathi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 18,36,086 out of which 9,42,870 are males and 8,93,216 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 947 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 20.19% including 20.85% are males and 19.49% are females. The population density in the district is 295 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 36,014 including 18,669 were males and 17,345 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,766 including 3,931 were males and 2,835 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 72.35% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Marathi and Urdu with 78.35% and 11.97%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are sugarcane, pulses, oil seeds, vegetables, banana, rice, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. The district is scantily industrialised. Parbhani have Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation area for development of industries in the region but still Parbhani don't have any big industry due to lack of political will. In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 20,14,200 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 16,70,900 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2013-14 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 12,85,600 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 6,86,100 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2013-14 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 71,426 at Current Price and Rs. 38,120 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University (VNMAU) in the district is the only agricultural university in India which conducts all agricultural courses in single campus. VNMAU is also one of the four Agri-Universities in the State of Maharashtra. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 73.34% including 82.64% are males and 63.63% are females.
Sheshrao Deshmukh, a veteran Indian politician and a member of the 6th Lok Sabha from the Parbhani parliamentary constituency of Maharashtra was born on 17th May, 2015 at the Parbhani city. He is a member of the Peasants and Workers Party of India.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Gangakhed, situated on the banks of Godavari River in the district is the birth place of Shree Saint Janabai. It has a temple of Janabai called as Janabai Mandir. There are also some other famous temples like Shree Balaji temple, Datta Dham, Shree Mannat Mandir, Chintamani Mandir, Shani Mandir and Shree Balaji temple which are situated on the banks of river Godavari. Yeldari Dam, an earth fill dam on the Purna River near Yeldari was constructed mainly for irrigation and hydroelectricity generation. The 16th century Lord Vishnu temple, located at a distance of 25 km. from the dam was constructed by the Kings of Vijaynagar Empire. Shri Peda Hanuman Mandir, dedicated to Lord Hanuman is located in the Parbhani. Every year a huge number of pilgrims from far off places come to this temple in order to offer their prayer. Some other places of interest in the district are Shah Turabul Haq (Turatpir) Dargah, Shree Ashtabhuja Mata Mandir, Mrityunjaya Pardeshwar Temple, Mudgaleshwar (Mudgal) Temple, Datta Temple and many more.