Aurangabad district is a district of Maharashtra state with its administrative headquarters located at Aurangabad city. The original name of Aurangabad was Khadki and during the time of Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam, Shah of Ahmadnagar, he made Khadki as his capital city. When, Malik Ambar died in 1626, his son Fateh Khan changed the name of the capital city from Khadki to Fatehnagar. After sometime in 1653 when the Fatehnagar came under the rule of Mughal prince Aurangzeb, he also made it his capital city and renamed it as Aurangabad. But in the Chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign sometimes Aurangabad is referred to as Khujista Bunyad. In the year 1795, after the Battle of Kharda the city came under the Maratha rule which lasted only for eight years. During the British Raj Aurangabad was a part of the Princely State of Hyderabad. When Indian got its Independence in 1947, it became a part of Hyderabad state of India until 1956. Later it became a part of newly formed bilingual Bombay state in 1956. Finally, it was emerged as a separate district in the map of Maharashtra state in 1960.
Sri B. Shyam Sunder, the founder of Bharatiya Bhim Sena was born on 21stDecember, 1908 in the Aurangabad district. In 1937, he also founded a movement named the Dalit-Muslim unity at Parbhani in the district and urged his people to join hands with Muslims. He was served as a Legislator representing Andhra Pradesh and Mysore.
Geographically, the district lies at 19088'N latitude, 75034'E longitude and 582 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 5.61% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies a geographical area of 10,131 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 13th in the state and 60thin India. It is bounded by Nashik district on the west, Jalgaon district on the north, Jalna on the east and Ahmednagar on the south. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Godavari, Purna, Shivana, Maniyad, Sukhana, Kham and Shahbaz. The climate of the district is characterized as semiarid climate. Most of its rainfall occurs during the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 423.0 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into nine tehsils namely Kannad, Soygaon, Sillod, Phulambri, Aurangabad, Khultabad, Vaijapur, Gangapur and Paithan. The district has 1 Lok Sabha seat and 9 Assembly constituencies. Moreover, the district comprises 9 sub-districts, 16 towns and 1,314 villages. The administrative language in district is Marathi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 37,01,282 out of which 19,24,469 are males and 17,76,813 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 923 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 27.76% including 27.84% were males and 27.68% were females. The population density in the district is 366 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 86,509 including 45,581 were males and 40,928 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 20,582 out of which 11,933 were males and 8,649 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 68.77% and 21.25% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Marathi and Urdu with 69.66% and 14.51%.
The district is one of the prominent producers of silk and cotton textile. The Himroo shawl of the district is very famous in India. The district is also industrially well developed. Some chief industries in the district are Bajaj Auto Limited, Garware Polyester, Videocon Industries Ltd., Skoda, Audi assembly, Siemense, Perkins, Hindalco, Varroc, Endurance, Ceat Goodyear, Orchid, Lupin, Ajanta Pharma, Sabmiller, Fosters, Cosmo Films Ltd., Grindmaster, Greaves, Forbes Gokak, Forbes Marshall, Lombardini, etc. In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 57,02,400 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 46,88,800 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2013-2014 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 37,21,500 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 21,42,300 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2013-14 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 1,07,784 at Current Price and Rs. 62,046 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Aurangabad as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
The schools of Aurangabad are run by Municipal Corporation (AMC) whereas privates are run by trusts and individuals. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (BAMU) is one of the most renowned universities of the district. Most of the colleges of the place are affiliated to it. National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology Aurangabad (NIELIT Aurangabad), located inside the campus of Dr B.A.M. university is an central government reputed engineering institute. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 79.02% out of which 87.37% are males and 70.08% are females.
Chandrakant Khaire, a distinguished Indian politician and a member of the 15thLok Sabha from Aurangabad constituency was born on 1stJanuary, 1952 at Aurangabad city. He is a member of the Shiv Sena political party. He was also served as the member of 13thand 14thLok Sabha from the same constituency.
The district has numerous historical monuments which allures many travellers from different parts of the world. Bibi Ka Maqbara, situated at a distance of 3 km. from the Aurangabad city is the burial place of Dilras Banu Begum also popularly known as Rabia-ud-Daurani, the wife of Emperor Aurangzeb. The architecture of this monument is just similar to the Taj Mahal so sometimes it is also called as the "Taj of the Deccan". Panchakki, the 17 th-century water mill is situated 1 km. from the city. It is an extraordinary underground water channel and the source of the water is located more than 8 km. in the mountains. Since the 52 gates is the identity of the district hence the district is known as "City of Gates". The Salim Ali Lake & Bird Sanctuary or Salim Ali Talab is situated near the Delhi Gate, opposite of the Himayat Bagh. One can found many migratory birds as well as the local birds in this bird sanctuary. The Shuli bhanjan, a nearby hill station is full of mesmerising natural sceneries. It is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers.