Osmanabad district, a part of the Aurangabad division is a district of Maharashtra state with its administrative headquarters located at Osmanabad city. The headquarters city, Osmanabad got its name from the 7th Nizam named H.E.H Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last ruler of Hyderabad and the region was a part of Hyderabad till 1947. Some of its natives believe that its history dates way back to the era of the Ramayana where Lord Rama is said to have spent some of his exile in parts of Osmanabad. During different periods of time the place was ruled by different dynasties likewise, Chalukyas, Devagiri Yadavas, Bahmani, Bijapur, Mauryas, Satavahanas, Rashtrakutas, Yadavas, etc. In the early centuries it was completely under the rule of the Hindu Chalukyas and Devagiri Yadavas, but later became a part of the Bahmani and Bijapur kingdoms. Prior to the Hyderabad Nizam's rule, it was under control of the Mughal King Aurangzeb. When the whole India got its freedom in the year 1947, at that time the region did not celebrate its freedom since it was under the rule of Nizam. But very soon in 1948, the Hyderabad State was merged with independent India and the district immediately came under the then Mumbai district. In 1960, the Maharashtra state was formed and it became a part of the State.
Geographically, the district lies at 18019'N latitude, 76004'E longitude and 653 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.66% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 7,569 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 21st in the state and 111th in India. It is bounded by Beed district on the North, Bidar district and Gulbarga district of Karnataka on the South, Latur district on the East, Solapur district on the South West and Ahmednagar district on the North West. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 632.3 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 8 tehsils namely Osmanabad, Tuljapur, Omerga, Lohara, Kallamb, Bhoom, Paranda and Washi. Moreover, it comprises 8 towns and 728 villages. The administrative language in the district is Marathi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 16,57,576 out of which 8,61,535 are males and 7,96,041 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 924 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 11.50% including 11.98% were males and 10.99% were females. The population density in the district is 219 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 27,372 out of which 14,409 were males and 12,963 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 8,037 out of which 4,832 were males and 3,205 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 86.73% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Marathi with 85.42%.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agriculture. More than half of its population are engaged in agricultural activities in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are sorghum, pigeon pea, black gram, bean, sunflower, wheat, sugarcane, mango, grape, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Industrially also the district is quite well developed. Some of its prominent industries are Venu Tiles Industry, Vaibhav Pipe Industries, Akshay Metal Industries, Garje Auto Industry, Kanchan Industries, Prakash Seeds Agro Industry, Dipjyoti Industry, Surya Paints, Gurukrapa Engg Works and many more. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries helps in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 17,29,600 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 14,17,000 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2013-14 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 11,97,600 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 6,34,100 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2013-14 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 70,663 at Current Price and Rs. 37,419 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. One of the most recognised educational institutions in the district is Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 78.44% including 85.84% are males and 70.51% are females.
Padamsinh Bajirao Patil, a veteran Indian politician and a member of the 15th Lok Sabha from Osmanabad in Maharashtra state was born on 1st June, 1940 at Osmanabad city. He is a member of the Nationalist Congress Party.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts country as well as world. Dharashiv caves, situated at a distance of 8 km. from Osmanabad city in the Balaghat Mountains are a group of total 7 caves in the Mountain range. Initially, these caves were the Buddhist caves but later these were converted into the monuments of the Jain religion. Yedshi Ramling Wildlife Sanctuary, located in the villages of Yedshi, Wadgaon and Bhanasgaon near to Osmanabad city is considered as a beautiful hill station with the health resort. Tulja Bhavani temple in Tuljapur is a wonderful temple of Goddess Tulja Bhavani. Pilgrims from far off places come to this temple in order to offer their prayers. Some other places of interest in the district are Naldurg, Shelagoan (jagir), Mankeshwar, Paranda Fort, Saint Goroba Temple and many more.