Buldhana district is a district in the Amravati division of the Maharashtra state with its administrative headquarters located at Buldhana city.The natives of the district believe that the district probably derived its name from Bhil Thana (place of Bhils, a tribal group). In the great epic of Mahabharata, it mentioned that this region, along with the Berar Province, was a part of the Vidarbha kingdom. During the rule of Ashoka (272-231 BCE), Berar was a significant part of the Maurya Empire. The place of Berar was ruled by different dynasties during different periods of time likewise, Satavahana dynasty (2nd century BCE to 2nd century CE), Vakataka dynasty (3rd to 6th centuries), Chalukya dynasty (6th to 8th centuries), Rashtrakuta Dynasty (8th to 10th centuries), Chalukyas again (10th to 12th centuries) and lastly Yadava dynasty of Devagiri (late 12th to early 14th centuries). After sometime, a period of Muslim rule was started in this place when Alauddin Khalji, the Sultan of Delhi, captured it in the early 14th century. In the mid-14th century, the region was merged with the Bahmani Sultanate, which broke away from the main Delhi Sultanate. Then the Bahmani Sultanate broke up into smaller parts at the end of the 15th century.In the year 1572, Berar became an integral part of the Nizam Shahi sultanate of Ahmednagar. Mughal rule was started in the place in 1595. When Mughal rule was in its full power at the start of the 18th century, Asaf Jah I, Nizam of Hyderabad, seized the southern provinces of the empire, including Berar in 1724 and formed an independent state. In 1853, the district, together with the rest of Berar, came under the administration of the British East India Company. Berar was divided into East and West Berar with Buldhana district being included in West Berar. In 1903, the Nizam of Hyderabad leased Berar to the British Government of India.
Geographically, the district lies at 20°53'N latitude, 76°18'E longitude and 639 m altitude.In the year 2019, there was a total 6.12% forest area of total geographical area.Buldhana district administers 9,661 square kilometers of areas.It is situated at the westernmost border of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra and is 500 km. from the state capital, Mumbai. It is bounded by Madhya Pradesh on the north, Akola, Washim, and Amravati districts on the east, Jalna district on the south and Jalgaon and Aurangabad districts on the west. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Tapi and Godavari. The climate of the district remains hot and humid throughout the year.The actual rainfall in the district was 796.8 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
The district consists of 13 sub-districts, 12 towns and 1300 villages. This district contributes one seat to the Lok Sabha, namely Buldhana (Lok Sabha constituency). The district has seven seats in the Maharashtra State legislature assembly: Buldhana, Chikhli, Sindhkhe Raja, Mehkar, Khamgaon and Jalgoan Jamod. The administrative language in the district is Marathi.
As per 2011 census, the district of Buldhana has a population of 2,586,258 out of which 13,37,560 are males and 12,48,698 females. The district has a sex ratio of 934 females per 1000 males. The district has a sex ratio of 934 females per 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011, the population growth rate in the district was 15.85% including 16.57% were males and 15.08% were females. The population density in the district is 268 persons per sq. km. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 43,115 including 23,214 were males and 19,901 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 13,931 including 8,224 were males and 5,707 were females.As per 2011 the major religion in the district is Hindu with 71.35% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Marathi with 78.67%.
Nearly 90% of the working population in the district are engaged in agriculture. Thus, the proportion of agriculture workers in total labour force is higher than the state average and there is high dependency on agriculture and allied activities for employment. Cotton, sorghum and other cereals, oil seeds, soybean, sunflower, and groundnuts are the predominant crops grown in the district. Khamgaon and Malkapur are the major cotton trading towns in the district. The district has many minor and medium size irrigation projects. The important ones are Nalganga and Vaan. The district has major industrial areas at Khamgoan and Malkapur and has smaller industrial areas at Chikhli, Buldhana, Dasarkhed, Deoulgaonraja, Mehkar, Sangrampur and Lonar.In the year 2018-19 (P) the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 24,62,300 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 18,98,500 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2013-14 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 17,43,600lakh at Current Price and Rs. 9,40,300lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2013-14 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 67,730 at Current Price and Rs. 36,526 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
Jijamata Mahila College of Education, located in Buldhana district, is among the known educational institution of the state. In the Buldhana district there are a polytechnic, an industrial training institute, a technical high school, a pre-vocational training centre and a crafts and needle crafts centre. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district was 83.40% out of which 90.54% were males and 75.84% were females.
Harshwardhan Vasantrao Sapkal is a member of the 13th Maharashtra Legislative Assembly. He represents the Buldhana Assembly Constituency. He belongs to the Indian National Congress.
Buldhana district includes visiting places of both religious as well as historical significance. One of the most famous tourist locations here is the Lonar crater. It is among one of the five largest craters in the world, and the third largest saltwater lake in the world. There are many places of interest located in and around the crater as well. Amba-barva Wildlife Sanctuary consist of 2.38 sqkm. private land and 124.73 sqkm. forest land. The forest is tropical dry deciduous forest. Shegaon is a town in Buldana district and now fast developing into a tourist spot with the construction of ‘Anand Sagar’, a INR 3000 million project with landscapes, meditation room, water reservoir and wonderful artifacts and sculptures. Balaji temple which is also popularly known as ‘Tirupati’ of Maharashtra was founded by Raje Jagdeorao Jadhav in 1665. Every year there is a local festival called ‘Shri Balaji Maharaj Yatra’ in the month of October. Daitya Sudan Temple has beautiful carvings similar to what is seen at Khajuraho temples. The idol of this temple is made of an ore with high metal content and looks like stone. Area outside the sanctum is dark and the ceiling reveals beautiful carvings under a torch light. It is a Vishnu temple dated to the Chalukya Dynasty which ruled Central and Southern India between the 6th and 12th centuries. Dnyanganga Sanctuary is situated 8 km. from Buldhana and 20 km. from Khamgaon town of Maharashtra. There are two lakes within the 205 sq km. sanctuary. Nandura is a town in Buldhana where there is the highest statue of Lord Hanuman in the world. Shri Sant Gajanan Maharaj Temple is situated in Shegaon is famous for the Samadhi of Shri Gajanan Maharaj-a mystic saint as popular as Saibaba of Shirdi.