Mumbai city district, a part of the Konkan division is a district of Maharashtra state with its administrative headquarters located at Mumbai. A renowned geographer named Ptolemy founded the city of Bombay through his geographical work in the year 150 A.D. The city is surrounded by many islands, which during the ancient times were ruled by native Agris and Kolis. These two ruled over the islands until 1345. After sometime the Islamic rulers came to the place and conquered the present day’s Maharashtra along with some nearby islands in 1534. Later, a Muslim sultan of Gujarat captured all the islands and then these were conquered by the Portuguese. Because of the continued help and support of England in the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, stemming from the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373, in 1661 the island of Bombay was handed over to the British as a Royal Dowry, on the marriage ceremony of King Charles II of England with the Portuguese Princess named Infanta Catherine of Braganza. And the island of Bombay remained as a significant part of British Raj from that time till 15th August, 1947 when India got its independence. During the British rul, they passed a Royal Charter under the Regulation XIX of 1827, according to which the Collector of Bombay was made its Chief Controlling Authority of the Revenue Administration. Mumbai city as a district of Maharashtra came into existence in the year 1997.
Anupama Gokhale, an illustrious former women’s chess champion of India was born on 17th May, 1969 at Mumbai. The Government of India honoured her with the prestigious Padma Shri Award in 1986 and the Arjuna Award in 1990.
Geographically, the district lies at 19°02'N latitude, 72°86'E longitude and 14 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 2.04% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 157 sq km. and in terms off geographical area it occupies the ranks of 37th in the state and 627th in India. It is bounded by Mahim and Sion on the North, Colaba on the South and Arabian Sea on the West. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer. Most of its rainfall occurs n the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2463.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 30,85,411 out of which 16,84,608 are males and 14,00,803 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 832 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -7.57% including -10.31% were males and -4.04% were females. The population density in the district is 19,652 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 1,20,188 out of which 62,174 were males and 58,014 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 1,11,942 out of which 65,409 were males and 46,533 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 60.73% and 25.06% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Marathi and Hindi with 35.96% and 26.95%.
Mumbai is popularly known as the financial and commercial capital of the country. The key sectors contributing to the city's economy are: finance, gems and jewellery, leather processing, IT and ITES, textiles, and entertainment. Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) are Mumbai's major financial centres. Every year a huge of revenue comes from these sectors helps in its economy to a great extent. In the today’s world, Mumbai is the third most expensive office market. It was ranked among the fastest growing cities in the country and especially for business start-up from 2009. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 5,23,63,600 lakhs at current price and Rs. 3,65,62,600 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 4,56,00,600 lakh at current price and Rs. 3,15,38,700 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 3,13,852 at current price and Rs. 2,17,069 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), University Institute of Chemical Technology are the most premier engineering and technology schools of India. It has also two recognised research institutions namely the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 89.21% including 91.48% are males and 86.45% are females.
Abid Ali Jaferbhai, a veteran Indian politician and a leader of Congress (I) from Bombay was born in the year 1899 or 1900 at Mazgaon in Bombay. He was also served as a member of the Bombay Legislative Council in 1947. Furthermore, he was a founder member of the Indian National Trade Union Congress and its Vice-President.
The district has several centres of attraction which allure many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Belapur Fort, situated near the township of Belapur in Navi Mumbai was built by the Siddis of Janjira. But later it was conquered by the Portuguese, and then Marathas. The Jogeshwari Caves in the Mumbai suburb of Jogeshwari are some of the earliest Hindus and Buddhist cave temples sculptures in India. The caves date back to 520 to 550 CE. The Kanheri Caves is a group of rock-cut monuments, located on the north part of Borivali on the western outskirts of Mumbai. It depicts the Buddhist influence on the art and culture of India. Some other places of interest in the district are Bandra Talao, Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Kalamb Beach, Marve Beach, Annapurna Studios, Bombay Talkies, Capitol Cinema, Coronation Cinema, Eros Cinema, Film City and many more.