Nanded district is a district of Maharashtra state with its administrative headquarters located at Nanded city. There is an interesting story associated with its name. The natives of the district believe that Nandi, the Vahan of Lord Shiva, performed penance on the banks (Tat) of Godavari River. So, the place was named after his name and with the passage of time the name of the district is changed from Nanditat to Nanded. The history of this place can be traced back to 4th century. After India got independence in 1947, the reorganization of Indian states started in 1956. At that time the Nanded district was divided into six talukas including Kandhar, Hadgaon, Biloli, Degloor, Mudhol while Mukhed and Bhokar were called as Mahals (revenue headquarters). But after the reorganization of states, many places were separated as well as merged too in different districts of different states of India. The district has also gained prominence as a holy place for Sikhism because the 10th and last guru of Sikhs called Shri Guru Gobind Singhji stayed in Nanded district for 14 months.
Pachlegaonkar Maharaj, the founder of the Hindu Rashtra Sena and Mukteshwar Dal was born in the Nanded district. He was actively participated in the Hyderabad liberation movement.
Geographically, the district lies at 19015'N latitude, 77031'E longitude and 366 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 8.90% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 10,528 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 11th in the state and 50th in India. It is bounded by Nizamabad, Medak and Adilabad districts of Telangana on the east, Bidar district of Karnataka on the south, by Parbhani and Latur districts of Marathwada on the west and Yavatmal district of Maharashtra on the north. During the summers the climate of the district remains extremely hot. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 868.1 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 16 talukas namely Ardhapur, Bhokar, Biloli, Degloor, Kinwat, Loha, Mahur, Mudkhed, Dharmabad, Mukhed, Hadgaon, Nanded, Himayatnagar, Naigaon, Kandhar and Umri. There are 2 Lok Sabha and 9 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 16 sub-districts, 17 towns and 1,541 villages. The administrative language in the district is Marathi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 33,61,292 including 17,30,075 are males and 16,31,217 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 943 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 16.86% out of which 16.79% were males and 16.94% were females. The population density in the district is 319 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 63,759 including 33,365 were males and 30,394 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 14,172 including 8,212 were males and 5,960 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 74.43% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Marathi and Hindi with 75.46% and 11.07%.
The district is slowly and gradually transforming into an industrial centre. Some of its chief industries such as Jai Carporation Ltd, Flamingo Pharmaceuticals, Kohinoor Feeds & Fats, Sai Smaran Foods Ltd, Godavari Drugs Ltd, etc. Half of its population are also engaged in agriculture. The foremost agricultural products in the district are paddy, tur, mung, urad, jowar, wheat, etc. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Nanded as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 37,17,600 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 30,32,500 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2013-14 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 22,56,500 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 11,98,800 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2013-14 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 67,654 at Current Price and Rs. 35,940 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district provides a platform for higher education. The Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University was established at Nanded on 17th September, 1994 after the bi-furcation of Marathwada University in Aurangabad. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to this university. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 75.45% out of which 84.27% are males and 66.15% are females.
Bhaskarrao Bapurao Patil, a distinguished Indian politician and a member of the 15th Lok Sabha from Nanded constituency was born at Khatgoan in the district. He was also served as a member of 13th Lok Sabha from the same constituency. He is a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party. Shankarrao Bhavrao Chavan, an illustrious Indian politician who served twice as Chief Minister of Maharashtra was born on 14th July, 1920 in the Nanded district. During different periods of time he was also served as the cabinet minister with various vital portfolios such as Finance Minister (1987 to 1990) and Home Minister in the Narasimha Rao cabinet.
The district has a great variety of tourist places which draws many travellers from across the world. Gurudwara Hazur Sahib, located at the Nanded city on the bank of the Godavari River is a place of worship (Gurudwara) for Sikhs. The Gurudwara was made at the place where the last Sikh Guru named Guru Gobind Singh died. Hottal, a place situated in Degloor Taluka has a very wonderful Lord Siddheshwar temple which is famous for the inscription of extraordinary art of Chalukya Era in the walls. Kandhar fort, located in the centre of Kandhar Town was constructed to pay homage to the Rashtrakuta King Krishna III of Malkhed who styled himself as Kandharpuradhi Swar. Mahur or Mahurgad is a very pious place in the district. Natives of the district believe that it is the birth place of Hindu Goddess Renuka, mother of Lord Parshuram. Moreover, it has many notable temples like Anusaya temple, Kalika temple, Renuka Devi temple, etc. Hazrat Nawab Sarfaraz Khan Sahid Masjid, an ancient majid which was constructed about 330 years back in the district. Nanded fort located in the district also allures numerous travellers from far distance place.