Nagpur, a district of Maharashtra is situated in its Vidarbha region. The district has its administrative headquarters located at the Nagpur city. The district is a part of Nagpur division. During the medieval period, in 1765 Nagpur was burnt substantially and again in 1811 it was partially burnt by marauding Pindaris. But the development process of the place, Nagpur was never stopped. In 1803, Raghoji II Bhonsale joined the Peshwa against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, but the British won that war. After sometime in 1816, Raghoji II was died, then his son Parsaji was murdered by Mudhoji II Bhonsale. Though he had signed a treaty with the British in the same year yet he joined the Peshwa against the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 but faced only defeat at Sitabuldi. This furious battle was a turning point since it led to the downfall of the Bhonsales and from that time onward the British acquisition of this region was started. Prior to 1853, the princely state of Nagpur was ruled by Raghoji III but after his death it was annexed by the British and the current Nagpur district was the part of Nagpur Province. In 1861, it was merged with the Central Provinces and Nagpur district became a part of one of its divisions, Nagpur division. In 1950, the district became a part of the newly formed Madhya Pradesh and Nagpur became its capital. During the time of reorganisation of states in 1956, the district was included in Bombay. On 1st May, 1960, it was declared as a separate district of Maharashtra state. Earlier Nagpur was popularly known as "Fanindrapur". It got its name from the term 'fana' means the hood of a cobra. Moreover, the river Nag flows through the Nagpur city. B. R. Ambedkar stated that both the city and the river are named after "Nag people”, a paticular caste of people found in the Nagpur city. The word "pur" means "city" in many Indian languages. During the British rule, the city was called as "Nagpore".
Nirmala Deshpande, an eminent Indian social activist who had followed the path of Gandhi was born on 19th December, 1929 in Nagpur. She is the person who devoted her whole life for the great cause of communal harmony and upliftment of women, tribal people, and the dispossessed in India. She was honored by the second highest civilian award of India Padma Vibhushan in 2006.
Geographically, the district lies at 21015'N latitude, 79009'E longitude and 311 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 20.22% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 9,892 sq km and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 14th in the state and 65th in India. It is bordered by Bhandara district on the east, Chandrapur district on the southeast, Wardha district on the southwest, Amravati district on the northwest and Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh on the north. The climate of Nagur district is charactrized as tropical wet and dry climate. During the monsoon period the district receives highest rainfall.The actual rainfall in the district was 1039.4 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into Nagpur district is divided into 14 talukas namely Ramtek, Umred, Kalameshwar, Katol, Kamthi, Kuhi, Narkhed, Nagpur, Nagpur (Rural), Parseoni, Bhiwapur, Mouda and Savnerand Hingna. There are 12 Legislative Assembly constituencies and 2 Lok Sabha constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 14 sub-districts, 41 towns and 1,617 villages. The administrative language in the district is Marathi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 46,53,570 including 23,84,975 are males and 22,68,595 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 951 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 14.40% out of which 13.28% were males and 15.61% were females. The population density in the district is 470 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 59,488 including 30,919 were males and 28,569 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 33,454 including 19,727 were males and 13,727 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Buddhists with 75.04% and 14.36% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district were Marathi and Hindi with 70.11% and 20.25%.
The district is emerging as the fastest growing metropolis in India. Oranges and cotton are the two main cash crops of the district. For the very reason the district is often called as “Orange city”. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research established the Central Cotton Research Institute at Nagpur in 1976 is to improve the quality and the production of its cotton. A Special Economic Zones (SEZ) are being developed in the nearby areas of Nagpur city which also helps in its economy. The yarn mills and sugar factories of the district contributes a huge chunk of revenue to its economy. In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,05,35,200 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 86,55,200 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2013-14 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 63,11,400 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 38,70,300 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2013-14 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 1,23,610 at Current Price and Rs. 75,800 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district has provide a platform for the higher education. Agricultural College of Nagpur is the oldest college in the country established in 1906 during the time of British Government. There are 3 state universities in he district-Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Kavi Kulguru Kalidas Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya University and Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University. The district has 3 reputed medical colleges-Government Medical College and Hospital, Indira Gandhi Medical College and N. K. P. Salve Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Center & Lata Mangeshkar Hospital. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 88.39% including 92.09% are males and 84.51% are females.
Nitin Jairam Gadkari, a distinguished Indian politician and the former president of Bharatya Janata Party was born on 27th May 1957 in Nagpur. He is the current Union Cabinet Minister of Modi Government with the portfolio of Transport. Devendra Gangadharrao Fadnavis, an illustrious Indian politician and the current Chief Minister of Maharashtra was born on 22th July, 1970 in Nagpur. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).
The sets of tourist place allures numerous travellers across the world. The Sitabuldi Fort in the district is a historical monument established in 1757. Shukrawari lake represents the scenic beauty of the district. Futala and Ambazari lake are the two other most important lakes in the district. Balaji Temple, located at the Seminary Hills is surrounded by beautiful picturesque. Pilgrims from different places of the country come to the temple to offer their prayers. Dragon Palace Temple in the district, a landmark of Indo-Japanese friendship was inaugurated in 1999 had received International and National Awards for its structural design. Nagpur has some notable national parks-Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve, Pench National Park, Nagzira-Navegaon Tiger Reserve, Melghat Tiger Reserve, Bor Tiger Reserve and Umred Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary.