Alwar district is a district of Rajasthan state with its headquarters located at Alwar city. There are some interesting mythological stories such as the story of Prahald (son)-Hiryanyakashyap (father) and the story of the Pandavas of Mahabharata are associated with this place. It was the place where Pandavas lived their year in hidden exile (Virat Nagar or Barath). The region started to develop during the time of Gurjar Pratihars and their allies Badgujars. Many Rajput sub-clan came and ruled the place of Alwar for a long period of time such as the Khanzada Rajputs, the Nikumbh Rajputs, the Badgujar Rajputs and finally the Naruka (Kachwaha) Rajputs. On the other hand the Maratha Empire and Jats of Bharatpur State also controlled this region but for a very short period. Partap Singh, a Rajput captured the Alwar Fort from a Jat king of Bharatpur through an agreement and from that moment the foundation for modern Alwar was started. The last Hindu emperor of India named Hemu, was born at the 'Deveti Machheri' village in Alwar district. Alwar is the both old and the new kingdom of the Rajputs. It is called the old because the natives of the district still follow the customs of the kingdoms of Viratnagar (1500 B.C). The place of Alwar, as a princely state was established in the year 1770 by a Kachwaha Rajput named Pratap Singh. At that time according to the "Gazetteer of Ulwar" published by the British raj, the state of Alwar was subdivided into 4 regions namely Rath region, Wai region, Narukhand region and Mewat region.
Asad Ali Khan, an eminent Indian musician who played the plucked string instrument rudra veena was born in 1937 at the Alwar city. He played the rudra veena in the dhrupad style and The Hindu recognised him as the best rudra veena player in India. He was honoured by the Padma Bhushan Award in 2008.
Geographically, the district lies at 27°56'N latitude, 76°61'E longitude and 271 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 14.27% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies a geographical area of 8,380 sq km. and it is bounded by the Rewari district of Haryana on the north, Bharatpur and Mewat district of Haryana on the east, Dausa district on the south and Jaipur district on the west. The climate of the district remains dry throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 805.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 16 tehsils namely Alwar, Bansur, Behror, Govindgarh, Kathumar, Kishangarh Bas, Kotkasim, Laxmangarh, Mundawar, Rajgarh, Ramgarh, Thanagazi, Tijara, Neenrana, Raini and Malakhera. Moreover, the district comprises 16 towns and 2,054 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 36,74,179 including 19,39,026 are males and 17,35,153 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 895 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 22.78% out of which 22.20% were males and 23.42% were females. The population density in the district is 438 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 82,955 out of which 43,489 were males and 39,463 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 20,843 out of which 12,823 were males and 8,017 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu and Muslim with 82.72% and 14.90% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 96.08%.
Alwar is well known for its abundance of mineral resources. The chief minerals available in the district are marble, granite, feldspar, dolomite, quartz, lime stone, soap stone, barites, copper clay, copper ore and pyrophylite. The economy of the district to some extent is based on agriculture. In the kharif season the agricultural products grow in the district are bajra, maize, jowar, karif pulses, arhar, sesamum, cotton, guar etc. Whereas in the rabi season wheat, barley, gram, mustard, taramira, rabi pulses, etc are commonly grows in the district. There are also some prominent industries set up in the district are G. S. Pharmbutor, Ashok Leyland, Pepsi, Parryware, Kajaria Ceramics and Honda Motors. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 65,83,360 lakhs at current price and Rs. 47,81,159 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 58,04,132 lakh at current price and Rs. 41,62,997 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 1,37,313 at current price and Rs. 98,488 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district has numerous schools and colleges. It provides a platform for the higher education. Some of its reputed educational institutions are Modern Institute of Technology and Research centre, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Siddi Vinayak College of Science and Higher Education, Laxmi Devi Institute of Engineering and Technology, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 70.72% including 83.75% are males and 56.25% are females.
The district has numerous historical monuments which allures many travellers every year. Bala Qilla also popularly known as Alwar fort is situated in the mid of the Aravali Hills. The natives of the district believe that the Qilla had never been invaded or conquered by any king. Nikumbh Mahal, a marvellous mahal is situated just behind the Qilla. Neelkanth temple, an ancient temple dedicated to Lord Shiva was built in between the period of 6th to the 9th century. Bhangarh Fort in the district is one of the most haunted forts in India. Moreover, the Archeological Survey of India has put up a notice board in front of the gate of the fort that it is prohibited for all tourists to stay inside the fort area after sunset and before sunrise. For this very reason the fort has become a foremost centre of attraction among the tourists. Sariska Tiger Reserve in the district is the perfect destination for the trigger lovers. Arvari River flows through the district and Hill Fort Kesroli, at present a heritage hotel are some other notable tourist spots in the district. During the year 2021, there were 2,125 foreign tourists and 2,21,283 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district.