The district of Sri Ganganagar was the part of Bikaner in ancient times, which came into existence as a separate district on 30th March, 1949 as a separate district. Ganganagar is the first well planned city in India, influenced by the town planning of Paris. It is situated near border of Rajasthan and Punjab, international border of India and Pakistan and on the entrance of Sutlej River in Rajasthan. It is named after the Maharaja Shri Ganga Singh Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner. It is also called the food basket and green district of Rajasthan. During the 15th century a new Bikaner was formed. Before the Independence of India Sri Ganganagar was a part of Bikaner District. Now both Bikaner and Sri Ganganagar come under Rajasthan, which is the biggest state of India. Maharaja Ganga Singh visualized and built the Gang Canal after the Indian famine of 1899-1900. The waters of Satluj River were brought into the region through the 89-mile long Gang Canal in 1927, turning this region into a breadbasket of Rajasthan.
Jagjit Singh, a veteran Indian Ghazal singer, composer and musician was born on 8th February, 1941 at Ganganagar city. He is also popularly known as the "Ghazal King". In the year 2003 the Government of India honored him with the prestigious Padam Bhushan award for his remarkable contribution in the field of singing. The Government of India also released a postal stamp in his honor in February 2014. Another eminent personality of the district is Col. Avatar Singh Cheema, the first Indian to climb Mount Everest. Furthermore, he was conferred the Arjun award by the Government of India.
Geographically, the district covers a total area of 10,978 sq km. According to the 2021, there was a total 1.05% forest area of total geographical area. It had 1271.27 sq km. waste land in 2008-09. It lies at 29°92'N latitude, 73°88'E longitude and 178 m altitude. It is bounded by Punjab on the North, Bikaner district on the South, Hanumangarh district on the East and Pakistan on the West. The climate of the district is extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. The actual rainfall in the district was 264.8 mm in the year of 2021-22.
The administrative headquarter of the district is located at Ganganagar city which has 461 km. distance from the state capital. The district is divided into 9 sub-districts namely Ganganagar, Sri Karanpur, Sadulshahar, Padampur, Raisinghnagar, Suratgarh, Anoopgarh, Sri Vijaynagar and Gharsana. Moverover, the district comprises 16 towns and 3,018 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 19, 69,168 including 10, 43,340 are males and 9, 25,828 are females. The population density of the district is 179 persons per sq km. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 10.04% including 9.21% were males and 11.00% were females. The district has a sex ratio of 887 (females for every 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Sikh with 72.98% and 24.11% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Punjabi with 38.96% and 56.30%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 37,682 out of which 19,894 were males and 17,786 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 13,550 out of which 8,219 were males and 5,329 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district due to the presence of Gang canal. More than half of their populations are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton and food grains are the main agricultural crops which help in flourishing of the oil, cotton and sugar factories. Industrially, also the district is quite well developed. Most of the industries are located in the surrounding regions of the Ganganagar city. Horticulture is also becoming famous among farmers. At present it has become the largest market for automobile includes tractors and MUVs in India. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 35,17,019 lakhs at current price and Rs. 24,45,065 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 31,51,977 lakh at current price and Rs. 21,63,238 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 1,39,135 at current price and Rs. 95,490 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Since the early ages, it has been famous as the centre of learning. It provides a platform for higher education. There are a large numbers of school and college. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to Maharaja Ganga Singh University, located in the Bikaner. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 69.64% out of which 78.5% are males and 59.7% are females.
The district has several centers of attraction which allures many travelers every year from different parts of the country as well as world. Gurudwara Buddha Johad, a renowned and large gurudwara which is situated at a distance of 85 km. from Ganganagar in the south-west. People from far of places come to this place to recall Bhai Sukha Singh and Mehtab Singh were hanged on 11th August, 1740. Chanana-Dham, built in 1971 is located in the great temple of Lord Hanumanji. It is located 4 km. away from the village 17 BB on the Ganganagar-Padampur road in the district. Pilgrims from every corner of the country come to this place in order to offer their prayers. Some other places of interest in the district are Baror, Dada Pamparam's Dera, Laila-Manjnu ki Mazar, Suratgarh Thermal power plant, Shri Jagadamba Andh-vidhyalaya, Anoopgarh Fort, Suratgarh and many more.