Bharatpur is the district of Rajasthan in western India. It is the part of National Capital Region (NCR). Bharatpur was founded by Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733 and named it after Bharat, the brother of Rama. Located in Mewat region, Bharatpur was once an impregnable, well-fortified city and the capital of the kingdom was controlled by Jat Maharajas. Maharaja Suraj Mal was the one of the great rulers of the state. He made the state a formidable force in the region. Deeg was the first capital of the Bharatpur state with Badan Singh being proclaimed its ruler in 1722. Bharatpur became the first state to sign to a treaty of Permanent Equal Friendship with the East India Company. During the period of British rule, they kept Gwalior and handed over the control of Gohad to the Jats in the year 1804. But as per a revised treaty signed on 22th November, 1805 by the Marathas and the British, the control of Gohad was handed over to the Marathas. As compensation for Gohad, the Jat ruler named Rana Kirat Singh, was given the places of Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda.
Geographically, the district lies at 27022'N latitude, 77049'E longitude and 183 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 4.55% forest area of total geographical area. The district covers a geographical area of 5,066 sq km. and it is bounded by Gurgaon district of Haryana on the north, Mathura and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh on the east, Dholpur district on the south, Karauli on the southwest, Dausa on the west and Alwar district in the north-west. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are namely the Ban Ganga which originates in Jaipur district, Rooparel starts from hills of Alwar district and Gambhir starts from Pachana Dam of Karauli District. The climate of the district remains extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. The actual rainfall in the district was 835.0 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 10 sub-districts included Boyana, Bharatpur, Deeg, Kaman, Kumher, Nadbai, Nagar Pahari, Roopwas Weir and Bhusawar. Moreover, it comprises 10 towns and 1,524 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 25,48,462 out of which 13,55,726 are males and 11,92,736 are females. The population growth rate during the year 2001-2011 was 21.29% including 19.61% were males and 23.25% were females. The density of population of the district is 503 persons per sq km. The district has a sex ratio of 880 (females for every 1000 males). According to 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 84.09% of the total population. As per 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 98.26%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 64,850 including 34,023 were males and 30,823 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 12,996 including 8,716 were males and 4,278 were females.
The economy of the district is solely dependent on agriculture. More than half of their populations are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, mustard, cotton, red-chillies and potatoes. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. The district is famous for its oil production since mustard grown in large quantity in the surrounding areas. The district is scantily industrialized. The Gross Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 20,82,717 lakh at current price and Rs. 14,65,602 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 19,01,577 lakh at current price and Rs. 13,21,826 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during 2016-17 was Rs.68,878 lakh at current price and Rs. 47,878 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012.
As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 70.11% including 84.1% are males and 54.24% are females. The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It also provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognized educational institutions are Jawahar Navodaya Vidhyalaya , Shri Krishna Educational Institute, Bharatpur Homeopathic Medical College, Bharatpur Nuring College, Bharatpur Law College, etc.
Kanwar Natwar Singh, a veteran Indian politician, a former senior bureaucrat, a former Union cabinet minister and a writer was born on 16th May, 1931 at Jaghina in the Bharatpur district. The Government of India also honored him with prestigious Padma Bhushan Award. Jagannath Pahadia, an eminent Indian politician and a leader of the Indian National Congress party was born on 15th January, 1932 at Bhusawar town in the Bharatpur district. He was also served as a former Governor of the states of Haryana and Bihar.
The important tourist places of the district are Keoladeo National Park, Government Museum, Ganga Temple, Laxman Temple, Deeg Water Palace, Lohagarh Fort, Gopal Bhavan, Deeg Fort, and Banke Bihari Temple. During the year 2018, there were 1,36,863 domestic tourists and 17,413 foreign tourists who visited above places.