Jaipur, the district of Rajasthan is situated in Northern India. The Jaipur city is the capital of Rajasthan and the largest city. It is the tenth most populous district in India. It was founded on 18th November 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1699 to 1743 and even the city is named after him. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City of India. But then he decided to transfer his capital from Amer, located at a distance of 11 km. (7 mi) from Jaipur in order to accommodate the growing population and also the increasing scarcity of water. So to solve the problems Jai Singh consulted several books based on architecture and architects. Finally the construction of the place was started in the year 1726 and the entire work took total four years to complete which included the major roads, offices and palaces. When the whole place was under the rule of Sawai Ram Singh I, he painted it pink so to welcome the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, in the year 1876. Since most of the avenues were painted in pink hence it gave Jaipur a distinctive appearance and later it became the Pink city.
Kudrat Singh Meenakar, an eminent Indian jeweller who specialised in kundan meenakari was born on 24th April, 1924 in Jaipur. The Government of India honoured him by Padmashri Award for his contribution to the beautiful Indian jewellers. Ram Narain Agarwal, an illustrious scientist and an aerospace engineer of India was born in Jaipur. He is known as father of the Agni series of surface-to-surface missiles. The Government of India honoured him by Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan Award in the year 1990 and 2000.
Geographically, the district lies at 26092'N latitude, 75082'E longitude and 431 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 4.96% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 11,143 sq km. and it is bounded by Sikar district on the north, Haryana state on the extreme northeast, Alwar and Dausa districts on the east, Sawai Madhopur district on the southeast, Tonk district on the south, Ajmer district on the west, and Nagaur district on the northwest. The actual rainfall in the district was 518.9 mm in the year of 2018-19. During the summer months of April to early July the average daily temperatures of around is 30 °C (86 °F).
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 13 tehsils in order to administer in a soomth way such as-Amber, Bassi, Chaksu, Chomu, Dudu, Jamwa Ramgarh, Kotputli, Phagi, Sambhar, Jaipur, Sanganer, Shahpura and Viratnagar. Moreover, the district comprises 19 towns and 2,180 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
As per 2011census the district has a population of 66,26,178 including 34,68,507 are males and 31,57,671 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 910 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate of the district was 26.19% out of which 25.30% were males and 27.18% were females. According to 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 87.83% and 10.37% of the total population. As per 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 94.75%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 1,88,289 including 1,00,902 were males and 87,379 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 50,186 including 31,975 were males and 18,206 were females.
Genpact and Infosys BPO Ltd have their BPO and Infosys Ltd have their Software Development Centres in Jaipur. Mahindra SEZ located in Jaipur is also one of the largest IT SEZ in India. The World Trade Park is a major boost to the economy of Jaipur. There is Gaurav Tower situated near World Trade Park which is also a major economic activity centre in the city. The Gross Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 98,75,595 lakh at current price and Rs. 74,59,131 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 86,72,806 lakh at current price and Rs. 64,41,126 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during 2016-17 was Rs. 1,20,820 lakh at current price and Rs. 89,731 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012.
Jaipur has many universities. The engineering colleges of the district are affiliated with the Rajasthan Technical University (RTU) of Kota. The district is full of numerous notable schools. As per 2011 census the literacy rate of the district is 75.51% including 86.05% are males and 64.02% are females.
Mahesh Joshi, an eminent Indian politician was born on 14th September, 1954 in Jaipur. He is a member of Indian National Congress. In 2009 he was elected to the 15th Lok Sabha from Jaipur constituency of Rajasthan.
Jaipur has many outstanding palaces and temples which allures numerous tourists every year. City Palace is one of the most magnificent marvels of Jaipur. It is has a rare combination of the finest blends of Rajasthani and Mughal architecture. Govindji Temple is a temple of Lord Krishna and it was built in such a way that the king could see the deity from the Chandra Mahal, opposite to it. Jantar Mantar was built by King Jai Singh II and it is built in stone and marble whose setting and shapes are designed scientifically. Hawa Mahal-The palace of winds was built by Sawai Pratap Singh in the 18th century and is the most remarkably designed monument in Jaipur. Moti Doongari and Lakshmi Narayan temple and Jagat Shiromani temple are the two most important temples of the district. The massive Jaigarh Fort was built in 1726 which is flanked by towering gateways and watch towers. It contains the world's largest cannon. Nahargarh Fort of Jaipur is also known as Tiger Fort. The fort was built in 1734 on the rugged Aravali Hills to defend the city. Jal Mahal was built by Sawai Pratap Singh in 1799 A.D. in the midst of the Man Sagar Lake. Albert Hall is situated in the beautiful Ram Niwas Garden. It was opened in 1887 as a public museum. Sisodia Rani Garden, Vidyadhar Garden and Birla Planetarium are some prominent places of interest of the district. During the year 2018, there were 17,87,836 domestic tourists and 6,81,227 foreign tourists who visited above places.