Jodhpur district is a district of Rajasthan state with its administrative headquarters located at Jodhpur city. The Jodhpur city is popularly known as the Sun City because of its sunny weather. Moreover, it is also called as the Blue City since the houses of the place are painted in blue colour near the Mehrangarh fort. Till 1100 CE Jodhpur was a part of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire. A Rajput chief of the Rathore clan named Rao Jodha founded the Jodhpur district in 1459. After that he conquered many surrounding territories and finally he founded a state called Marwar. During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest geographical area of any in Rajputana. At that time the merchants and the marwaris of Jodhpur were flourished in trade and commerce and spread across the India. When India got independence in 1947 Jodhpur became the second city of Rajasthan. During the time of partition of India, Hanwant Singh, the ruler of Jodhpur at first did not want to join India but ultimately because of the effective persuasion of the then Home Minister of India, Sardar Vallab Patel, the princely state of Jodhpur merged in Republic India. Later after the State Reorganization Act, Jodhpur was incorporated in the Rajasthan state as a separate district in 1956.
L. M. Singhvi, an eminent Indian jurist, parliamentarian, scholar, writer and diplomat was born on 9th November, 1931 in the Jodhpur city. After VK Krishna Menon, he was the second longest-serving High Commissioner of India in the United Kingdom (1991- 97). He was honoured by the Padma Bhushan Award in 1998. Kailash Sankhala, a distinguished Indian naturalist and conservationist was born on 30th January, 1925 in Jodhpur city. He was served as the Director of Delhi Zoological Park and Chief Wildlife Warden of Rajasthan. He was famous as "The Tiger Man of India" and was actively participated in the Project Tiger, a conservation programme set up in India in the year 1973. He was honoured by the Padma Shree award in 1992.
Geographically, the district lies at 26026'N latitude, 73002'E longitude and 300 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.47% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies a geographical area of 22,850 sq km. and it is bounded by Bikaner district on the north, Nagaur district on the northeast, Ajmer district on the southeast and south, Pali district on the southwest and Jaisalmer district on the west and northwest. The climate of the district remains hot almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 240.0 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 7 sub-divisions namely Jodhpur, Bhopalgarh, Luni, Osian, Phalodi, Piparcity and Shergarh. Moreover, the district comprises 7 towns and 1,838 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 36,87,165 including 19,23,928 are males and 17,63,237 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 891 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 27.74% out of which 27.09% were males and 28.46% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 87.45% and 11.16% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 97.90%. The population density in the district is 161 (persons per sq. km.). In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 89,564 including 48,004 were males and 41,557 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 23,312 including 15,246 were males and 8,066 were females.
The district is well admired for its extra ordinary designs of handicrafts. The Handicraft industry in the district is flourishing day by day. Most of its population are directly or indirectly engaged in these industries. Other items manufactured in the district include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles, ink and sporting goods. Tourism is the second largest industry of Jodhpur. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the tourism sector. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, mathania red chillies, millet, groundnut, cotton, bajra, wheat, barley, etc. The Gross Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 38,17,803 lakh at current price and Rs. 30,28,728 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 34,14,002 lakh at current price and Rs. 27,06,722 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during 2016-17 was Rs. 85,470 lakh at current price and Rs. 67,763 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012.
Jodhpur district provides a platform for the higher education. Some of its reputed educational institutions are Indian Institute of Technology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences. National Law University, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishnan Ayurved University, Indian Institute of Handloom Technology, Sardar Patel University of Police Security and Criminal Justice, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 65.94% including 78.95% are males and 51.83% are females.
Ashok Gehlot, an illustrious Indian politician and the 21st and 23rd Chief Minister of Rajasthan (1998-2003) and again (2008-2013) was born on 3rd May, 1951 at Mahamandir in the district. He is a member of the Indian National Congress. Jai Narayan Vyas, a notable Indian politician and the two times chief minister of Rajasthan state i.e. from 26th April, 1951 to 3rd March, 1952 and also from 1st November, 1952-12st November, 1954 was born on 18th February, 1899 in the Jodhpur city. He was a leader of Indian National Congress party.
The historical monuments in the district depict the splendour tradition and culture of its natives. During the year 2018, there were 10,82,138 domestic tourists and 1,71,019 foreign tourists who visited above places. The forts and other wonderful monuments are the evidence of its glorious past. Mehrangarh Fort, situated on a 150 m high hill was constructed by Rao Jodha, the then chief of Rathore clan in 1459. Within the boundary of the fort one can found different galleries, a museum, temples and many more. Umaid Bhavan Palace is an excellent creation of Maharaja Umaid Singh in 20th century. But at present one of its parts is converted into a hotel and a museum. Jaswant Thada, located close to Mehrangarh Fort was built in memory of Maharaja Jaswant Singh in 1899. It is a royal cenotaph made up of white marble. Inside of the Jaswant Thada, one can found the portraits of the Rathore rulers. Balsamand Lake and Kailana Lake are the vital lakes in the district. Some other foremost centres of attraction in the district are Rao Jodha Desert Rock Park, Mandore Gardens and Clock Tower.