Bikaner was established by Rajput prince Rao Bikaji in 1488 AD. Prior to the mid-15th century, it was a barren wilderness called Jangladesh. It was integrated in India on 30 March 1949 after independence of India from the British rule. Bikaner played an important role in the history of the country. Sadul Singh was one of the 1st rulers of a princely state to sign an instrument of accession on 7th August, 1947. Rao Bika the first son of Jodha wanted to have his own kingdom building the state of Bikaner in the area of Jungladesh. Rai Singhji, who ruled from 1571-1611 accepted Mughal suzerainty and was a high-ranked army general of Akbar and Jahangir. Raja Rai Singh won many wars including the one in which was to conquer the Mewar Kingdom and in return he got rewards from the Mughal emperors such as Gujarat and Burhanpur. Rai Singh then modified the Junagarh fort or Chintamani Durg on an elevation of 760 feet. After sometime the place came under the control of Maharaja Karan Singh from 1631 AD till 1639 AD and constructed the Karan Mahal Palace. Later the palace was rebuilt by the succeeding rulers. Maharaja Anup Singh who ruled here from 1669 AD till 1698 AD added a ‘Zanana’ quarter to the palace, for the ladies of the royal family. Another marvellous creation, Karan Mahal was refurbished into ‘Deewan-e-Aam’ by Anup Singh and after that it was renamed as Anup Mahal. During the period of British rule, Maharaja Ganga Singh was one of the favourite princes of the British Viceroys, thus they built the famous Ganga Mahal and Ganga Niwas Palace in the name of Ganga Singh. This palace was designed by Sir Samuel Jacob.
The well known personality of the region is Akbar Khan who is a disability Activist. Lt. Col. Kishan Singh Rathore from army became famous by getting Mahavir Chakra award. Santosh Joshi is a Hindi classica singer, known for Khyal form of singing and his popular renditions of devotional bhajans and Hori songs.
Geographically, Bikaner is the district of the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is bounded by Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Nagpur, Jodhpur, Jaislmer and Punjab province of Pakistan. It lies in Thar Desert. It comprises a total area of 30,239 sq km. area. It covered total 0.85% forest area in 2019. In 2008-09, total 8450.91 square kilometers were demarcated as a waste land, which cannot be used for any kind of agricultural or industrial activity. It lies at 28002'N latitude, 73032'E. The climate of the district is extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. The actual rainfall in the district was 265.9 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Bikaner is the head quarter of the Bikaner District which is located at a distance of 338 km. from the capital of the state. It has 5 sub-divisions named Bikaner, Nokha, Loonkaransar, Khajuwala and Dungragarh. The district has 8 sub-districts, Bikaner has Bikaner and Kolayat, Khajuwala has three-Khujuwala , Chhattargarh and Pugul, but Nokha, Loonkarasar and Dungragarh have only one tahsils with the same name. It has total 6 towns and 919 villages. Hindi is the administrative language of Bikaner district.
The district is home to a total number of 3,75,970 households with a total population of 23,63,937 out of which 12,40,801 are males and 11,23,136 are females. The density of population of the district is 78 persons per sq km. The percentage of major schedule caste population in the district comprises Megh, Meghval, Meghwal and Menghvarat with 54.05%. The percentage of main schedule tribe population comprises Mina with 38.36%. The sex ratio is pegged at 905 (females for every 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 908 (females per 1000 males). In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 41.19% including 40.03% were males and 42.49% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 87.71% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 95.94%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 65,274 out of which 34,918 were males and 30,348 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 13,407 out of which 8,387 were males and 5,020 were females.
Agriculture is the main source of income of Bikaner district. The Gross Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 27,06,656 lakh at current price and Rs. 24,04,159 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during 2016-17 was Rs. 24,40,049 lakh at current price and Rs. 21,62,977 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during 2016-17 was Rs. 95,281 lakh at current price and Rs. 84,462 lakh at constant prices during 2011-2012. Indira Gandhi Canal provides water for irrigation in the region.
As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 65.13% out of which 75.9% are males and 53.23% are females. The total literate population of the district is 12,78,801 including 7,82,399 are males and 4,96,402 are females.
Mr. Pannalal Barupal, born in Bikaner was an active participant in Non-Cooperation Movement and in the 1942 Quit India movement. The Government of India issued a postal stamp in his honor in 2006. Bulaki Das Kalla, born on 4th October, 1949 is also a renowned name in the Indian social and political arena.
During the year 2018, there were 3,85,101 domestic tourists and 71,798 foreign tourists who visited above places. who visited historical or religious places, such as Junagarh Fort, Lalgarh Palace, Gajner Palace, Bikaner Camel Safari Day Tours, Gajner Wildlife Sanctuary, Ganga Singh Museum, Sadul Singh Museum, Jain Temple, The Royal Cenotaphs, Skybird Water Park, and Kote Gate.