Arwal district, a part of the Magadh division is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Arwal town. Earlier, it was a popular part of Jehanabad district. But Arwal district was emerged as a separate district in the map of Bihar state on 20th August, 2001. As per 2011 census, after districts of Sheikhpura and Sheohar it is the third least populous district of Bihar. Whenever, someone unfolds the history of Bihar, it is obvious to remember the massacre of Dalit people at Laxmanpur Bathe in the year 1997 which not only took away number of Dalit’s lives but also left the whole place in a state of shock for a long period. At present it is a part of the Red Corridor.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°24'N latitude, 84°67'E longitude and 68 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 0.65% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 638 sq kms. and it is bounded by Patna and Bhojpur on the North, Aurangabad and Gaya on the South, Jehanabad on the East and Bhojpur and Rohtas on the West. The climate of the Arwal is very extreme in nature, since its natives experience very hot in the summers and bitter cold in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 931.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has only one sub-division namely Arwal Sadar which is further divided into 5 blocks such as Arwal, Karpi, Kaler, Kurtha and Suryapur Vanshi. It also comprises 1 town and 316 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 7,00,843 out of which 3,63,497 are males and 3,37,346 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 928 (females for 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 90.48% of the total population. The district has a population density of 1,099 (persons per sq. kms.). In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 18.89% including 19.32% were males and 18.44% were females. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 94.89%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 18,383 out of which 9,404 were males and 8,979 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,937 out of which 1,782 were males and 1,155 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Paddy, wheat and pulse are the chief agricultural crops in the district. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. No doubt that most of the area of the district has well irrigation facility but unfortunately due to lack of infrastructure and power, farmers from all parts of the district are not benefited proportionally. But the district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few agro-based industries. In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,02,676 lakh at current price and Rs. 63,662 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 92,297 lakh at current price and Rs. 56,673 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. But the higher education facility in the district is not very good. Most of its students prefer to go outside the district in order to take higher and professional education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 67.43% out of which 79.06% are males and 54.85% are females. The literate persons in the district is 3,86,351 including 2,35,279 are males and 1,51,072 are females.
Since the district is very small in size hence it has only a few place of interest where one can spend some quality time and enjoy the monuments. However the place offers its visitors some mesmerising natural sceneries which depicts true India during the rainy season when paddy fields are full of greenery. Tourists can take a leisure walk on the banks of river Son for many hours. One of the leading Sufi named Makhdoom Hazreat Shamshuddin Arwali constructed the Khanquah Khanqah e Shamsia which is situated at banks of river Son. Shahi Mohalla, a renowned spiritual centre of Bihar is located in the district. Madhusurva Temple is also one of the most significant places of Arwal district.