Sitamarhi district, a part of Tirhut division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative head quarters located at Sitamarhi town. Earlier in 1875, it was a sub-district of Muzaffarpur district but the Sitamarhi was carved out from it and emerged as a separate district on 11th December, 1972. During that period its administrative head quarters are located at Dumra, a place situated at a distance of 5 kms. south of Sitamarhi. Later the district head quarter was shifted to the Sitamarhi town. An interesting my thological story is also associated with the place Sitamarhi. It is believe that in Treta Yug Sita, the wife of Lord Rama was born out of an earthen pot in this place and Raja Janak, the king of this place found her while he was ploughing the field somewhere near Sitamarhi in order to impress Lord Indra, the God of rain. Raja Janak excavated a tank at the place where he found Sita and named the tank as Janaki-kund. More over to mark the site Raja Janak constructed the stone figures of Rama, Sita and Lakshman after Sita’s marriage.
Acharya Ramlochan Saran, a Hindi writer, grammarian and publisher was born on 11th February, 1889 at Sitamarhi town. He also founded a number of popular magazines such as Balak magazine (1926-1986), Himalaya (1946-1948) and Honhar (Hindi and Urdu) (1939).
Geographically, the district lies at 26060'N latitude, 85050'E longitude and 56 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 6.44% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographically area of 2,294 sq. kms. and it is bounded by The district is bounded by Nepal on the north, East Champaran district and Sheohar district on the west, Muzaffarpur district on the south and Darbhanga district and Madhubani district on the east. During the summers, the climate of the district remains hot and humid. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 914.3 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 sub-divisions namely Sitamarhi Sadar, Belsand and Pupri. There are 1 Lok Sacha seat and 8 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 8 towns and 834 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 34,23,574 out of which 18,03,252 are males and 16,20,322 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 899 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 27.62% including 27.20% were males and 28.08% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 78.06% and 21.62% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,492 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Urdu with 82.73% and 13.96%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 49,203 out of which 26,598 were males and 22,605 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,902 out of which 4,426 were males and 2,476 were females.
The economy of the Sitamarhi district is solely based on agriculture. Both Rabi and Kharif crops are grow in the district. Some of its chief Rabi crops are Wheat, pulses, khesari, mustard seeds, etc on the other hand the foremost Kharif crops grow in it are Paddy sugarcane and marua. Almost all population in the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialized. Agro-based industries are the core industries of the district which provides employment to about one thousand people. A few sugar and rice mills are also found in it which as well contributes in its economy to some extent. It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 5,51,862 lakh at current price and Rs. 3,13,372 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-05. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 4,99,592 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,79,643 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-05.
The district has numerous primary schools but there is a lack of higher educational institutions which compels its students to go to some other place in order to take higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 52.05% including 60.64% are males and 42.41% are females. The number of literates in the district is 14,36,794 out of which 8,85,188 are males and 5,51,606 are females.
Sitaram Yadav, a distinguished Indian politician and a member of the 14th Lok Sabha from the Sitamarhi constituency was born on 5th January, 1946 in the Sitamarhi district. He is a member of the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) political party.
There are varieties of centres of attraction in the Sitamarhi district. Sitamarhi district is well-known for the pilgrimage tourism. A prime attraction among the various places of tourism located here is the Janaki Temple, situated 1.5 kms. away from Sitamarhi has great mythological significance since it is said to be the birthplace of Sita, wife of Lord Rama. There is a tank in the south side of the temple called Janki Kund. Deokuli, a place located 19 km. away to the west of Sitamarhi town. Lord Shiva temple situated in this place is its identity. Every year on the occasion of Mahashivaratri a big fair held in this place. Some of its natives believe that it is the birth place of Draupadi, the wife of the five Pandavas. Haleshwar than, located at a distance of 3 kms. northwest of Sitamarhi has a temple of Lord Shiva founded by King Videha on the occasion of Putra Yeshti Yajna and he named the temple as the Haleshwarnath temple. Baghi Math, a big Hindu monastery is situated at a distance of 7 kms. northwest of Sitamarhi in Baghi village. This is a very pious place for performing Yajna and worship. A famous Baba Nageshwarnath (Lord Shiva) temple is situated at Pupri in the district. Shukeshwar than, a place of worship of Sukhadev Muni (the great saint) is located 26 kms. away northwest of Sitamarhi district. Shukeshwarnath temple dedicated to (Lord Shiva) is a popular temple of this region.