Bhagalpur district is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Bhagalpur town. The place Bhagalpur derived its name from the term Bhagdatpuram meaning the city of Good Luck since it was flourished a lot during the period of the Anga Kingdom. There are many my thological stories associated with the Bhagalpur district. Natives of the district believe that during the ancient period Bhagalpur was a part of the Anga Kingdom which was ruled by the king Karna mentioned in the great epic Mahabharata. Then after some years had passed, it came under the powerful kingdom of Magadha or Behar. In 7th century it was emerged as an independent state and also as the capital of the Champa city. Later the place was ruled by both the Mughals and British. During the British rule in India, Bhagalpur was enjoyed an important status of trade centre.
Pritish Nandy, an illustrious Indian poet, painter, journalist, politician, media and television personality, animal activist and film producer was born at Bhagalpur town. He was honoured by many prestigious awards likewise Padma Shri in 1977, Vijaya Ratna Award in 1989, Karmaveer Puraskaar in 2008 and many more.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°24'N latitude, 86°98'E longitude and 43 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 2.72% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,569 sq kms. and it is bounded by Khagaria district, Medhepura district, Purnia district and Katihar district on the north, Banka district on the south, Godda district and Sahibganj district of Jharkhand on the east and Munger district on the west. The climate of the district remains extremely hot in the summer and cold in the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1495.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 16 tehsils namely Bihpur, Colgong, Gopalpur, Goradih, Ismailpur, Jagdishpur, Kharik, Narayanpur, Nathnagar, Naugachhia, Pirpainti, Rangra Chowk, Sabour, Shahkund, Sonhaula and Sultanganj. Moreover, there are 10 towns and 1515 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 30,37,766 out of which 16,15,663 are males and 14,22,103 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 880 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 25.36% including 25.08% were males and 25.68% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 81.90% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,182 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Urdu with 88.74% and 10.29%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 85,961 out of which 43,585 were males and 42,360 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 12,650 out of which 8,011 were males and 4,637 were females.
The economy of the district is dependent on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The district is fortunate enough to have a thermal power plant at NTPC Kahalgaon in the place, Kahalgaon. Among all the industrial belts in the district Barari industrial Area is the largest one. The Government of India has set up a Handloom park in the district so as to present its varieties of handloom works. In 2006 the Government of India declared Bhagalpur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 8,16,206 lakh at current price and Rs. 4,90,590 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 7,34,083 lakh at current price and Rs. 4,34,185 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 63.14% including 70.3% are males and 54.89% are females. The number of literates in the district is 15,73,066 out of which 9,37,669 are males and 6,35,397 are females.
Ashwini Kumar Choubey, a distinguished Indian politician and a former health minister of Bihar was born on 2nd January, 1953 at Bhagalpur town. He is a member of the 16th Lok Sabha from the Buxar Lok Sabha constituency. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Vikramashila Mahavihara, located at a distance of 38 kms. from Bhagalpur has its rank after the Nalanda. Once there was a famous Pala king named Dharmapala (770-810 AD) who loved to call himself Paramasaugata meaning a chief worshipper of the Lord Buddha and a great supporter of Mahayana Buddhism. These things inspired him to found the Vikramashila Mahavidhyalaya. Ajgaivinath Temple, situated at Sultanganj in the district is the well known Indian Hindu Temple devoted to Lord Shiva. Natives of the district believe that the deity present in the temple is of Swayambhu. In the past numerous significant incidents had took place in the Sultanganj. Champapur is a holy place and a historic Teerth Kshetra of Jainsim. The place has a renowned temple called Shri Champapur Digamber Jain Temple. People from far off places come to this temple to offer their prayers. Some other notable places in the district are Budhanath temple, Kuppa Ghat, Mandar Parvat, etc.