Sheikhpura district, a part of Munger division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative head quarters located at Sheikhpura city. The legends believe that Hazarat Makhdum Shah Shoeb Rahamatullah Aleh, a great suphie saint had founded the Sheikhpura city six hundred years ago. Then he settled down there and by following him some people came to this place and cleaned its dense forests in order to settle down there. Slowly and gradually the region was densely populated. Then the Pallavas came to this region and they made Sheikhpura as one of their chief administrative centres. The famous ‘Dal Kuan’ was constructed in this area during the rule of the popular Afghan ruler called Sher Shah Suri. Sheikhpura got the Thana status at the mughal period. In the British rule Sheikhpura was accorded the Big Kotwali status. Earlier, Sheikhpura was a part of Munger District but later it was separated and emerged as a distinct district. It came into existence in the year 1999.
During the period of Indian struggle for independence, the natives of the district participated in it very actively. Many veteran leaders and freedom fighters were born in the soil of the district. Rajo Singh, a well-known politician and a Member of the Bihar Legislative Assembly for six consecutive terms, i.e. from 1972 to 1998 was born on 25th March, 1928 at Hathiama village in the Sheikhpura district. He played a vital role in the formation of the district. Sudhakar Sneh, the popular producer, director and music director of Indian film industry also comes from Biman village of Sheikhpura district.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°14'N latitude, 85°86'E longitude and 50 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 0.17% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 689 sq. kms. and it is bounded by Nalanda district on the north and north west, Nawada district on the south and south west, Lakhisarai district on the east and Jamui district on the south east. During summer the climate of the district remains extremely hot. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1280.4 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district comprises one sub-division i.e. Sheikhpura. Further this division is divided into six developmental blocks namely Ariari, Sheikhpura, Barbigha, Ghatkosumbha, Chewara and Shekhopur Sarai. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 2 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 2 towns and 314 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 6,36,342 out of which 3,29,743 are males and 3,06,599 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 930 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 21.09% including 20.35% were males and 21.90% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 93.68% of the total population. The population density in the district is 924 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 95.11%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 21,965 out of which 11,430 were males and 10,533 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,360 out of which 1,458 were males and 902 were females.
Shiekhpura is one of the smallest district of Bihar and almost all people of the district are dependent on agriculture. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, wheat, lentils, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products. Sone mining of smaller hillocks with crushers is one of the main activities for employment. The district is not industrially well developed. In 2006 Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Sheikhpura as one of the country's 250 backward district and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-2012 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,05,741 lakh at current price and Rs. 62,520 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-05. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 94,562 lakh at current price and Rs. 55,113 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-05.
There are numerous schools and colleges in the district. Some of its reputed educational institutions are S.K.R. College Barbigha, Ramadhin College, Sheikhpura, Chandrasekhar Banke Nasib College, Hathiama, Sanjay Gandhi Smarika Women’s College, Sheikpura, Mehus College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 63.86% including 73.56% are males and 53.4% are females. The number of literates in the district is 3,28,676 out of which 1,96,431 are males and 1,32,245 are females.
The district has a few religious tourist destinations which allures numerous travellers from different parts of the world. The district has some not able centres of attraction including Arghauti Pokhar, Girihinda Pahar, a temple of Lord Shiva; Samas, a temple of Lord Vishnu; Nimi, a famous temple of Maharani; etc.