Gopalganj district is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Gopalganj city. Earlier, Gopalganj was the part of Saran district. During the Vedic period the place was under the rule of Videh king. Then in the Aryan era it was came under the Vaman tribe’s king named Chero. At the time of Indian struggle for independence, the natives of the place participated very actively. The freedom fighters of the place who gave their lives for motherland are its pride. The Gopalganj district was came into existence in the year 1976. Lalu Prasad Yadav, an eminent Indian politician and the former Chief Minister of Bihar (1990 to 1997) was born on 11th June, 1948 at Gopalganj city. He was also served as the Cabinet Minister of Railways from 2004 to 2009 under the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. He is the President of the Rashtriya Janata Dal political party.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°47'N latitude, 84°43'E longitude and 52 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 0.42% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,033 sq km. and it is bounded by Uttar Pradesh state on the north and west, Siwan district on the south and East Champaran district on the east. The climate of the district is characterised as the subtropical humid climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1564.9 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Hathwa and Gopalganj. There are 1 Lok Sabha constituency and 6 Assembly seats in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 5 towns and 1,534 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 25,62,012 out of which 12,67,666 are males and 12,94,346 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 943 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 19.02% including 17.84% were males and 20.19% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu and Muslim with 82.72% and 17.02% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,260 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 97.95%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 73,929 out of which 38,674 were males and 35,251 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 11,606 out of which 7,065 were males and 4,539 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on agriculture since most of the population in the district are engaged in agriculture. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, wheat, maize, etc. One can also found some industries of sugar, vegetable oil, irrigation, etc. in the district. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products which contribute in the economy of the district to a great extent. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Gopalganj as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 5,53,276 lakh at current price and Rs. 3,03,826 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 5,00,719 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,70,378 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
In Gopalganj city, the schools and colleges are either run by the government or by private trusts and individuals. The district has also provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 65.47% out of which 76.51% are males and 54.81% are females. The number of literates in the district is 13,82,998 including 7,93,905 are males and 5,89,093 are females.
Ram Dulari Sinha, an illustrious Indian parliamentarian and a former Union Minister was born on 8th December, 1922 at Gopalganj city. She was also served as the Governor of Kerala from 23rd February, 1988 to 12th February, 1990. She was a member of Indian National Congress. Abdul Ghafoor, a distinguished Indian politician and the former chief minister of Bihar (July, 1973 to April, 1975) was born in the year 1918 in the Gopalganj district. He was a member of Indian National Congress party.
The district has a set of tourist places which allure numerous travellers from different parts of the country. Thawe, a village situated at a distance of 6 km. south of Gopalganj has an old fort and a palace of the King of Hathwa but both are now in decadent state. Dighwa-Dubauli, a village located in the eastern part of the Gopalganj subdivision is an ancient site which has two amazing pyramidal-shaped mounds. It is believe that the mounds are the works of Chero-Chai, an aboriginal race. Husepur, a village situated at a distance of 24-kms North-West of Gopalganj was a seat of the Maharajas of Hathwa and the fort constructed by them is present in the district but totally ruined. Lakri Dargah, a village got its name from a tomb of Muslim saint named Shah Arzan is situated 24-kms away from Siwan.