Lakhisarai district, a part of Munger division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Lakhisarai town. Lakhisarai district came into existence in the year 1999. During the Buddhist era, Lakhisarai was popularly known as "Anguttri", implying status as a district. It was also a well known centre of religious learning. In the very beginning, it was a part of Munger district but later on 3rd July, 1994 it was carved out from Munger district and emerged as a new separate district. The Chinese traveler named Huien Tsang described Lakhisarai as a place where there were at least four hundred Buddhists staying in around ten “Maths” or residences. The Buddha mathas were located on the banks of the river Ganges. At that time the king was also Buddhist. From 7th century to 11th century the region was ruled by the Pal Bans. The people believed that the Krimila of that period is now Kiul Basti. It is believed the Lord Buddha stayed there for around 3 years. The Mughal rule was started in this region in 11th century when Md. Bin Bakhtiyarin attacked it.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°17'N latitudes, 86°10'E longitudes and 56 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 14.94% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,228 sq. km. and it is bounded by Begusarai district on the north, Jamui district on the south, Munger district on the east and Sheikhpura district, Nalanda district and Patna district on the west. The climate of the district remains quite hot during the summer and fairly cold during the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1067.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has 1 sub-division i.e. Lakhisarai which is further divided into 6 blocks namely Lakhisarai, Surya Garha, Barahia, Halsi, Piparia and Ramgarh Chowk. There are 1 Lok Sabha constituency in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 2 towns and 472 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 10,00,912 out of which 5,26,345 are males and 4,74,567 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 948 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 24.77% including 26.02% were males and 23.41% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 95.55% of the total population. The population density in the district is 815 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 97.28%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 26,542 out of which 13,721 were males and 12,818 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,285 out of which 2,046 were males and 1,238 were females.
The economy of the district is solely based on agriculture. The irrigation facilities within the district are not sufficient for agriculture but the adaptability of its farmer to the new agricultural technologies and ideas help to increase the production level of the various agricultural items. The chief agricultural products grows in the district are paddy, wheat, lentils, potato, onion, etc. The district is scantily industrialised. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products. Only a few industries of iron rod, private rice mills, Sindur, insecticide can be found in the district which also helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is famous for its top quality of sands and stones. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Lakhisarai as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,91,941 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,15,678 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,73,540 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,03,230 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
There are only a few educational institutions in the district. The lack of higher educational institutions in the district compels its students to go to some other place in order to take higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 62.42% including 71.26% are males and 52.57% are females. The number of literates in the district is 5,07,270 out of which 3,05,182 are males and 2,02,088 are females.
Giriraj Singh, an eminent Indian politician and the member of 16th Lok Sabha from the Nawada constituency was born on 8th September, 1952 at Barahiya in the Lakhisarai district. He is a member of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). He was also served in the Cabinet of Bihar as co-operative minister from 2005-10 and Animal Husbandry minister from 2010 to 2013.
The district has a variety of tourist places which allures numerous travelers from different parts of the country. Rajauna, a village in the district was the capital of Indradaman, who was the last emperor of Pala dynasty. Historical ruins found in this place are the evidence of the fact that it had a glorious past. Ashok dham, a place situated nearby the Rajauna village is known for unique Shivling made of black stone, which is huge in size. Kabaiya, a ward in the Lakhisarai near Janagar Hills plays a significant role during the ancient period between ninth and tenth century. Nongarh, a place situated 10 km. from Lakhisarai was important in terms of a glorious centre of civilization and culture in ancient times. Since, during the excavation of Nongarh, some statue of god and goddesses made of sand stone and some stoops were found. Barahiya, a small town located at a distance of 15 kms. north to Lakhisarai is well known for its Temple of Tripura Sundari Man Bagwati popularly known as Maharani Asthan, which is the highest temple of Bihar is situated here. Shringirishi, a wonderful tourist spot in the district is full of mesmerising natural sceneries and a beautiful Lord Shiva temple located on a mountain near Jalappa Asthan. Bhagwati Asthan of Abhaipur is famous for its Maa Bhagwati temple situated at the foot hill of Abhaipur village mountain. Devotees from far distance place come to this temple to offer their prayers.