Buxar district, a part of Patna division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Buxar state. There are many interesting mythological stories associated with the district. During the ancient period, the place Buxar was popularly known by various other names such as "Siddhashram", "Vedgarbhapuri", "Karush", "Tapovan", "Chaitrath" and "VyaghraSar". The name of the place Buxar is also mentioned in the great epic Ramayana. The term Buxar is derived from the two Sanskrit term Vyaghra meaning tiger and sar meaning pond. It is believed that once the Rishi Durvasha had cursed the Rishi Vedshira to have a face of tiger. But the tiger face of Rishi Vedshira was restored after bathing in a holy tank of the place Buxar which with the passage of time named as Vyaghra Sar. Another significant my thological story is the story of sage Vishwamitra, the family guru of Lord Rama who had his holy ashram at the banks of river Ganges, inside the present Buxar district. Both the brothers, Lord Rama and Laxman took their teachings at Buxar. This was the place where the famous Rakshasi (demoness) called Tadika was killed by Lord Rama. The present district of Buxar has a place named Ahirauli, situated six kilometers away from the Buxar town and it is believe that Ahirauli is the place where Ahilya, the wife of Gautam Rishi not only regained her human body from that of stone but also got salvation by a mere touch of the feet of Lord Rama. Buxar as a district came into existence in the year 1999.
Bismillah Khan, an eminent Indian musician who popularized the shehnai, a sub continental wind instrument of the oboe class was born on 21st March, 1913 at Dumraon in the Buxar district. The Government of India conferred many prestigious awards on him likewise Bharat Ratna in 2001, Padma Vibhushan in 1980, Padma Bhushan in 1968, Padma Shri in 1961, etc.
Geographically, the district lies at 25056'N latitude, 83098'E longitude and 40 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.35% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,703 sq. Kms. and it is bounded by Uttar Pradesh on the North and North West, Rohtas district on the South, Bhojpur district on the East and Kaimur district on the South West. The climate of the district is characterised as a moderate climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1071.1 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Buxar and Dumraon. Moreover, the district comprises 11 sub-districts, 3 towns and 1,133 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 17,06,352 out of which 8,87,977 are males and 8,18,375 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 922 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 21.67% including 20.26% were males and 23.24% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 93.27% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,002 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 99.21%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 39,345 including 21,143 were males and 18,202 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 8,921 including 5,150 were males and 3,771 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialised but it has some industries of soap, timer, furniture, leather products, etc. It is one of the 36 most backward districts in Bihar and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Program. In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 3,19,991 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,87,902 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product I the district was Rs. 2,86,897 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,65,618 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 70.14% including 80.72% are males and 58.63% are females.
Kailashpati Mishra, a veteran Indian politician and a former Governor of Gujarat was born on 5th October, 1923 at Dudharchak in the Buxar district. He was a leader of the Bharatiya Janta Party and also served as the Governor of Rajasthan for a short duration.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. According to Hinduism, Buxar is a holy place since many significant mythological pious incidents were happened in this place. The name of the Ahirouli village in the district is derived from the term ahilyavali meaning abode of ahilya. Because Ahirouli is the place where Lord Ram released Ahilya by touching her with his foot and at that very moment Ahilya lying in the form of stone was converted into the human. Moreover, a degree college founded by the famous saint late Shri Khaki Baba in the Buxar is named after the prominent Rishi Vishwamitra. Once in a year many people take a round of the religious areas in the Buxar district is called Panchkoshi Parikrama. Pilgrims perform it in five days by halting at night in the five villages of the district.