Muzaffarpur is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar with its administrative headquarters located at Muzaffarpur city. It is a portion of Tirhut Division. The city Muzaffarpur was set up by an Afghan named Md. Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) because of this very reason the city was named after him. Muzzafarpur as a separate district came into existence in the year 1875 after splitting from the Tirhut district for administrative convenience. Muzaffarpur district is popularly known as the “Land of Litchi”. During different periods of time the district was ruled by different dynasties. Muzaffarpur played a very significant role in the history of North-Eastern India. The importance of the district as a merging point of the culture and traditions of Hindus and Muslims cannot be denied. Moreover, the impact of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilisation is also remarkable. Muzzaffarpur as a separate district came into existence in the year 1875. In 1972 both Sitamarhi and Vaishali districts were separated from the district of Muzaffarpur. In the late 1970 the region was a major centre of anti-emergency movement of Jai Prakash Narayan. In terms of politics, the city was largely influenced by the movement as in the rest of Bihar in the 1980.
Devaki Nandan Khatri, an eminent Indian writer who belonged to the first generation of popular novelists in the modern Hindi language was born on 18th June, 1861 in Muzaffarpur, He was the first author of my stery novels in Hindi. Chandrakanta is one of the most popular works of him. Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi, a notable political activist was born on 3rd March, 1900 in the district. Today also he is recalled by the natives as the founder of All-India Jamhur Muslim League and flag bearer for the cause of Urdu Language.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°12'N latitude, 85°38'E longitude and 60 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 5.24% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 3,172 sq. km. and it is bounded by the Purbi Champaran and Sitamarhi district on the north, Vaishali and Saran district on the south, Darbhanga and Samastipur on the East and Saran and Gopalganj district on the west. During the summer days the climate of the district is extremely hot and humid. On the other hand the winter season is pleasantly cool. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1855.7 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions East and West subdivision. Again, the East sub division comprises 9 blocks and West sub division comprises 7 blocks. Moreover, the district comprises 9 towns and 1,786 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 48,01,062 including 25,27,497 are males and 22,73,565 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 900 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district is 28.14% out of which 29.52% were males and 26.64% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 84.00% and 15.53% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,514 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Urdu with 90.93% and 7.65%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 1,41,504 out of which 75,085 were males and 66,389 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 20,192 out of which 12,435 were males and 7,757 were females.
Muzaffarpur is the foremost exporter of litchi. There are many commercial hubs, located in different regions of the city. The district has some age old sugar mills which are also contributing in its economy. To some extent the economy of the district is based on agriculture. The core agricultural crops of the district are rice, wheat, pulses, jute, maize and oil seeds. Now-a-days vegetables are gown in an abundant quantity. The city has various big and small industries. The railway wagon industry is one of the big industries of the city. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared it as one of the country's 250 most backward districts. It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar which is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic Product of the district was Rs. 11,02,406 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,74,230 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 9,99,694 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,03,998 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
After Patna the name of Muzaffarpur comes in the list of the districts of Bihar which provides a great platform for higher education. The district has one of the best known and old universities in Bihar i.e. B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University. The Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital and Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology are among the reputed medical and engineering colleges of Bihar. Dr Rajendra Prasad, the first president of the Republic India was a teacher in the Greer Bhumihar Brahman College in Muzaffarpur. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 63.43% including 71.28% are males and 54.67% are females. The number of literates in the district is 25,09,232 out of which 14,87,117 are males and 10,22,115 are females.
Mridula Sinha, the present Governor of Goa and a distinguished Hindi writer was born on 27th November, 1942 at Chhapra Dharampur Yadu village in Muzaffarpur. She is a member of Bharatiya Janata Party. She was also appointed as an ambassador for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, by Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India.
Muzaffarpur is not as well-known as a tourist destination but its ancient temples are very beautiful which allures numerous travellers from different parts of the world. Shri Ram Temple, a Navratna temple is situated in the Sahu Pokhar region of the city. The presence of memorials of Lord Rama and his wife, Sita have made this place renowned. There is an ancient Bhairav Temple located in a region between Rajkhand, a small village and the Muzaffarpur’s Aurai Block. During the occasion of the Mahashivratri, a huge number of people gathered there. Hathilwa-Mathh, Radha-Krishna Temple, Simri Mai temple, Badi Masjid at Company Bagh and Ramna Gurudwara are some other prominent age old temples of the district. Kali Mata Temple, established in 1932 is situated on the bank of Gandak River. Ram Chandra Shahi Museum was set up in the year 1979 is situated in the Jubba Sahni Park. A collection of unique postage stamps, relics and other different items of art are there in the display of the museum.