Aurangabad district, a part of Magadh division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Aurangabad city. The district got its name from the name of the Mughal emperor Aurangabad. The name of the district is mentioned in almost all the books of Treta and Dwapar ages. The district had a glorious and a religious past. The natives of the district believe that the sage like Bhrigu had practiced his penance in the Aurangabad district. Baba Dudheshwar Nath, a Shivaling made of Black Sapphire was founded in this region. Another most admired Sun temple of Konark style in the Aurangabad district was constructed by a Tretayugi King called Raja Ayel. The modern history of Aurangabad is a part of ancient Magadha. During that period this region was ruled by many kings of Maurya dynasty including Bimbisara, Ajatashatru, the great Ashoka and Chandragupta Maurya. After the collapse of Mauryan dynasty this region was ruled by different dynasties at different period of time such as Sungas, Kushans, Rajputs, Mughals and finally British. At the time of Indian struggle for independence, Mahatma Gandhi and Indian National Congress launched a very famous slogan i.e. "Angrejo Bharat Chhorho" with the help of the people of Aurangabad. Earlier Aurangabad was a part of Gaya district but later it was separated on 263th January, 1973. Aurangabad district came into existence in the year 1976.
Geographically, the district lies at 19°88'N latitude, 75°34'E longitude and 65 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 4.84% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 931 sq km. and it is bounded by Bhojpur district and Arwal district on the north, Jharkhand state on the south, Rohtas district on the east and Gaya district on the west. The natives of the district experience a tropical climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1136.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has 2 sub divisions namely Aurangabad and Daud Nagar. These sub divisions are further divided into 11 blocks including Madanpur, Kutumbba, Daudnagar, Aurangabad, Barun, Obra, Deo, Nabinagar, Haspura, Goh and Rafiganj. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 6 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 6 towns and 1,847 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 25,40,073 out of which 13,18,684 are males and 12,21,389 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 926 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-11 the population growth rate in the district was 26.18% including 26.68% were males and 25.64% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 90.20% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 94.78%. The population density in the district is 2,728 persons per sq. kms. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 64,976 out of which 33,777 were males and 31,179 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 9,762 out of which 5,976 were males and 3,784 were females.
Economic inequality and illiteracy are the curse of the people of this area. The prevailing economic inequality in the district compels many of its people to involve in the extremist activities because it is the easiest way to grab quick money. The economy of the Aurangabad district is solely depends on agriculture. Some of its chief agricultural crops are paddy, wheat, sugarcane, lentils, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products. Most of its population are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialised. Only a few industries of carpet, blanket weaving, etc are found in it helps in its economy to some extent. In 2006 the Indian government declared Aurangabad as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 4,52,719 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,66,593 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. During the year 2011-12 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 4,07,449 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,35,781 lakh at constant prices during the year 2004-2005.
There are numerous schools and colleges in the district. Some of its reputed educational institutions are Sachhindanand Sinha College, S.N. Sinha College, R.L.S.Y. College, Kishori Sinha Mahilla College, Sityog Institute of Technology, Anugrah Inter College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 70.32% including 80.11% are males and 59.71% are females. The number of literates in the district is 14,66,002 including 8,68,733 are males and 5,97,269 are females.
Shankar Dayal Singh, an eminent Indian politician and twice elected to the Parliament of India i.e. as a member of Lok Sabha (1971-1977) and as a member of Rajya Sabha (1990-1995) was born on 27th December, 1937 in the Aurangabad district. Earlier he was a member of Indian National Congress but later he joined Janata Dal. Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha (Singh) popularly known as Bihar Vibhuti was born on 18th June, 1887 in the Aurangabad district. He was a distinguished Indian politician and the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of Bihar (1946-1957). He was a member of the Indian National Congress party.
Aurangabad district in the Bihar state is an abode of many centres of attraction which draws many travellers from different parts of the country. Deo, a place in the district is renowned because of its Sun temple, built by Bhairvendra Singh, a Chandravanshi king of Umga. Every year, during Chhath festival, thousands of pilgrims gather in there to pray the Sun God. Deo Kund is both a religious as well as a historical place of interest. The temple of Lord Shiva is the identity of this place. During Mahashivratri thousands of worshippers from far distance place visit this temple to offer their prayers. Umga and Amjhar Sharif are the two other notable religious tourist spots in the district.