Sheohar district, a part of Tirhut Division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative head quarters located at Sheohar town. It is one of the most flood prone districts in Bihar. Mostly during the monsoon season the increasing water level of the Bagmati and Budhi Gandak Rivers creates the problem of flood in this area. Earlier, it was a part of Sitamarhi district but it was carved out in the year 1994 and in the same year it was emerged as a separate district in the map of Bihar state.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°51'N latitude, 85°29'E longitude and 53 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 6.18% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 349 sq. kms. and it is bounded by East Champaran district on the North West and West, Sitamarhi district on the North East and East and Muzaffarpur district on the South. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summers. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1236.8 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has only one sub-division namely Sheohar, which is further, divided into five developmental blocks including Sheohar, Tariyani, Piprahi, Dumri-katsari and Purnahiya. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 6 Assembly constituencies. Moreover, the district comprises 1 town and 203 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 6,56,246 out of which 3,46,673 are males and 3,09,573 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 937 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 27.19% including 26.67% were males and 27.77% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 84.19% and 15.14% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,880 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 91.89%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 22,225 out of which 11,641 were males and 10,575 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,108 out of which 1,233 were males and 875 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Some of its chief agricultural products are rice, wheat, and a number of rabbi crops. Almost all population in the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialized. Only a few agro based industries are found in it which also helps in its economy to some extent. In 2006 the ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Sheohar as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 81,391 lakh at current price and Rs. 45,902 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-05. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 73,681 lakh at current price and Rs. 40,990 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-05.
Sheohar district has numerous primary level schools but there is a lack of secondary level and the higher level educational institutions which compels its students to go to some other place in order to take higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district 53.78% including 61.31% are males and 45.26% are females. The number of literates in the district is 2,83,698 out of which 1,71,645 are males and 1,12,053 are females.
Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha, an eminet Indian politician and a member of the 1st Lok Sabha from Muzaffarpur North-West constituency was born in 1908 in the district. He was a vital part of the freedom movement and also known as the Father of cooperative movement in Bihar.
The best time to visit the district is in between October and March since at that time the weather is conducive for sightseeing. The ancient temple of Lord Shiva at Dhancoul or Dekuli is a popular place of pilgrimage for devotees. The Bagmati and Budhi Gandhak rivers offer scenic sightseeing opportunities on either bank as well as a chance for boating on certain stretches. It has several other centres of attraction which helps one to connect with nature and rejuvenate himself.