Kaimur district, a part of Patna division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Bhabua town. Kaimur district came into existance in March 1991. At present it is a part of the Red Corridor. Previously, it was a part of Rohtas district. Around 20,000 years ago rock paintings in the Lehda forest are the evidence of human habitation in the district at that early period. During the period of British rule Shah Alam was involved in a conflict with Lord Clive of East India Company in the year 1758, then went to the place of Durgawati and with the help of local Zamindar named Pahalwan Singh they crossed the Karmanasha River. As a result, Pahalwan Singh succumbed to comply and live on the latter's terms. In 1764, the earlier Shahabad district witnessed the conflict for supremacy and later the British emerged as the absolute masters of the area after defeating Siraj-ud-daula in the famous battle of Buxar. Once again, the region was shaken by the rebellion of Raja Chait Singh of Banaras but eventually the English succeeded in suppressing the revolt. The erotic Pala sculptures were bored in the Baidyanath village in 2012. There is an interesting story associated with the Kaimur district. It used to be the abode of the aboriginals in the days gone by whose descendants can be seen in the Bhars, the Cheros and the Savers. According to some legends, the Kharwars were the original settlers of the hilly tracts of Rohtas. One local legend also connects Sasaram the present headquarters of Rohtas with king Sahasrarjun, who was killed by Saint Parshuram in a fight.
Geographically, the district lies at 24°91'N latitude, 83°53'E longitude and 93 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 31.56% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,332 sq km. and it is bounded by Uttar Pradesh state on the north and west, Jharkhand state on the south, Buxar district on the north east and Rohtas district on the east. Natives of the district experience extreme hot during the summer and fairly cold during the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1329.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Mohania and Bhabua. The district has 11 blocks including Bhabua, Ramgarh, Mohania, Durgawati, Adhaura, Bhagwanpur, Chand, Chainpur, Kudra, Rampur and Nuawon. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 4 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 3 towns and 1,695 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 16,26,384 out of which 8,47,006 are males and 7,79,378 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 951 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 26.17% out of which 25.00% were males and 27.46% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 89.54% of the total population. The population density in the district is 488 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 97.69%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 43,206 out of which 22,186 were males and 21,013 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 7,559 out of which 4,458 were males and 3,101 were females.
The economy of the district is solely based on agriculture. Almost all population in the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialised. Only a few industries can be found in the district including Vanaspati Oil Ltd., ACC Ltd, Power Grid Corporation of India, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, maize, wheat, sugarcane, telhan, dalhan, etc. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Kaimur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,79,345 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,61,868 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,51,804 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,43,268 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
Educationally, the district is not well developed. The scarcity of higher educational institutions compels the student of the district to go to some other place in order to take education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 69.34% including 79.37% are males and 58.4% are females. The number of literates in the district is 9,20,276 including 5,49,923 are males and 3,70,353 are females.
The number of travellers from abroad or from within is increasing day by day. The district has a variety of tourist places such as places of historical importance, religious significance and places full of beautiful natural sceneries. Maa Mundeshwari Temple, located on the hills of the district showcases a wonderful mixture of the Mughal and Hindu rule. Akhlaspur or Khalaspur, the largest village in Bhabua is situated in the middle of Surwara and Kuknahiya Rivers. Moreover, this place is famous for the rice grown there. Kamata village, located at a distance of 6 km from the Bhabua town is a role model of a self sustainable village. There are two public ponds in this place which are used for fishery and water resources and the revenue comes from these are use for village development work. Baidyanath Village has a Shiva temple built by the Pratihars and renovated in 1812-13 AD. Numerous coins and other valuables of historical importance have been discovered here. Durauli, located 8 km. away from the north-east region of Ramgarh has two old temples built by the Cheros. Chainpur, situated 11 Km. to the west of Bhabua headquarters is known for Bakhtiar Khan Tomb.