Bhojpur district, a part of Patna division is a district of the Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Arrah town. Legends believe that in the history the districts of Bhojpur and Shahabad had a close linkage since the Shahabad district was its parent district. An interesting historical story is also associated with the district. Historians suggest that Arrah, the present headquarters of the district got its name from the Sanskrit term 'Aranya' meaning forest. Earlier, the Shahabad district along with two other prominent districts of Patna and Gaya were under the ancient Magadha kingdom. After the downfall of the Gupta Empire the place was came under the control of petty chieftains of aboriginal tribes. During that period Chero tribes were the foremost one which controlled the place. Later, the Bhoja tribe came in the power and made Raja Bhoj as their king. Finally, the place was named after him as 'Bhojpur', the present name. The district came into existence in the year 1992.
Bhuvaneshwar Prasad Sinha, the 6th Chief Justice of India (1959-1964) was born on 1st February, 1899 in the Bhojpur district. He was also served as the president of the Bharat Scouts and Guides (1965-1967).
Geographically, the district lies at 25°47'N latitude, 84°52'E longitude and 193 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 1.34% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,395 sq. Kms. and it is bounded by Saran district and Uttar Pradesh on the North, Rohtas district on the South West, Arwal district on the South East, Patna district on the East and Buxar district on the West. The climate of the district is characterised as extremely moderate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1092.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 14 tehsils namely Agiaon, Arrah, Barhara, Behea, Charpokhari, Garhani, Jagdishpur, Koilwar, Piro, Sahar, Sandesh, Shahpur, Tarari, and Udwant Nagar. Moreover, it comprises 6 towns and 1,217 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 27,28,407 out of which 14,30,380 are males and 12,98,027 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 907 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 21.63% including 21.26% were males and 22.05% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 92.30% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,139 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 97.46%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 67,876 out of which 35,886 were males and 31,985 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 12,118 out of which 7,308 were males and 4,809 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agriculture. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. Sone and Ganges are the principal rivers of the district which provides irrigation facilities to major part of its agricultural lands. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, wheat, maize, gram, oil seeds, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialised because it has only a few small scale industries and some agro based industries. In 2006 the Government of India declared Bhojpur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 5,33,769 lakh at current price and Rs. 3,22,284 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 4,78,423 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,85,229 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Maharaja College, Jain College, B.S.S. College, Sanjay Gandhi College, Maa Maittryainee Yogini Senior Secondary School, Dr. K.K. Mandal, Saint Barahna Mahila College, STSM College, Panwari T.S.I.M. College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 70.47% out of which 81.74% are males and 58.03% are females.
Jagjivan Ram, an eminent Indian independence activist and politician was born on 5th April, 1908 at Chandwa in the Bhojpur district. He was popularly known as Babuji. Most interestingly, he was served as the Defence Minister of India during the period of Indo-pak war of 1971 which led to the creation of Bangladesh. Later, he was also served as the Deputy Prime Minister of India (1977-79). At the very beginning he was a member of the Indian National Congress then joined the Janata party and finally formed the Indian National Congress-Jagjivan.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Sun temple, situated at Dev village in the district has a very beautiful statue of the Sun God which belongs to the 14th century. Gundi Village, a pious place in the district is the birth place of the famous saint named Awadhoot Bhagwan Ram, also known as Bhagwan Ramji or Sarkar Baba. He is believed to have been born in the year 1937. Aranya Devi Temple in the district is the temple of Forest Goddess who is respected as the local goddess of Ara town as well. Baba Yagyeshwar Dham, an ancient temple devoted to Lord Shiva is situated at Jagdishpur in the district. Natives believe that Lord Krishna, himself created the temple and Maharshi Yagyavalka had supervised the construction of the temple. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Parswanath Mandir, Mahamaya Mandir, Venkatesh Mandir, Mahathin Mai Mandir, Jagdishwar Shiv Mandir and many more.