Madhubani, a district of Bihar is a part of Darbhanga division with its headquarters located at the Madhubani town. The district got its name from the two Hindi words “madhu” means sweet and “bani” means voice or language. Both the terms together means the land of sweet language i.e. Maithili, the chief language speaks by the natives of the district. The history of the district of Madhubani is not so clear but only a little is known about its history from the time of the Kusanas to the rise of the Guptas. At that time there was some instability in the region, later the place of Madhubani was captured by the Oinwaras, also popularly known as the Kameshwara Thakura or the Sugauna dynasty. After sometime the district became a part of the Mughal Subah. The crucial victory of the British in the battle of Buxar in the year 1764 paved their way clear to undisputed sway over the Lower Provinces of Bengal. As a result, Madhubani along with some other significant parts of Bihar, went under the control of British. Earlier, Madhubani was the part of Darbhanga district but in the year 1976 Madhubani was emerged as a separate district in the map of Bihar.
Sir Ganganath Jha, an eminent scholar of Sanskrit, Indian Philosophy and Buddhist Philosophy was born on 25th December, 1872 at Sarisab Pahi village of Madhubani district. He was also a pa??it of Nyaya-sastra. He was honoured by many notable awards among which Campbell Medal by Royal Asiatic Society of London and the title Mahamahopadhyaya in 1901 were remark able.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°35'N latitudes, 86°07'E longitudes and 80 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 5.87% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 3,501 sq km. and it is bounded by Nepal on the north, Saharsa district and Darbhanga district on the south, Supaul district on the east and Sitamarhi district on the west. The climate of the district is extremely hot in the summer and fairly cold in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1754.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-divisions namely Madhubani, Jaynagar, Benipatti, Jhanjharpur and Phulparas. There are 2 Lok Sabha and 10 assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 6 towns and 1,110 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 44,87,379 out of which 23,29,313 are males and 21,58,066 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 938 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 25.51% including 26.52% were males and 24.44% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 81.39% and 18.25% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,282 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Maithili and Urdu with 84.07% and 12.86%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 1,32,776 out of which 73,050 were males and 59,708 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 15,562 out of which 9,455 were males and 6,107 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Madhubani district. The core agricultural crops in the district are wheat, sugarcane and pulses. Rearing of cattle is an important subsidiary occupation of the district. Some of rice mills and timber factory of the district are also contributing in its economy to a great extent. On the other hand the Ministry of Panchayati Raj in 2006, named Madhubani as one of the country's 250 most backward districts. It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar which currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product of the district was Rs. 6,56,173 lakh at current price and Rs. 3,84,285 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 5,92,889 lakh at current price and Rs. 3,42,809 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
As per 2011 census the literacy rate of the district is 58.62% out of which 70.14% are males and 46.16% are females. The number of literates in the district is 21,55,338 out of which 13,40,085 are males and 8,15,253 are females. Some reputed colleges in the district are R.K. College, J.N. College, JMDPL Mahila College and DNY College.
Shakeel Ahmad, a distinguished Indian politician and a member of the 12th and 14th Lok Sabha of India was born on 2nd January, 1956 at Umgaon in Madhubani. He is a member of the Indian National Congress (INC). Before he was elected as a member of Lok Sabha, he was for the first time elected as MLA in 1985 and again in 1990 and 2000. Chaturanan Mishra was an illustrious Indian politician and trade unionist who was born on 7th April, 1925 at Nahar in Madhubani District. He was a key leader of the Communist Party of India in Bihar.
The set of tourism in this district includes several historical as well as religious sites which allures travellers from different parts of the country. Saurath, a village situated on Madhubani-Jaynagar road which is well known for Somnath Mahadev temple. Kapileswarsthan, a village located nine km away from Madhubani district. A temple of Lord Shiva is the identity of this place. Pilgrims from far distance place come to this temple every Monday and particularly in the month of Shravan. Uchaitha village in Benipatti block of the district is become popular for the Bhagwati temple, on the western bank of Thumne River. A my thological story is also associated with this place that renowned Sanskrit language poet and dramatist Kalidasa was blessed by Goddess Sarawasti at this place. Ugaranath temple in Bhawanipur village in the district is a centre of attraction and it has traditional association with prominent poet, Vidyapati. People from different places come to this place to offer their prayers.