Faizabad district is a district of Uttar Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Faizabad city. Earlier, the headquarter city, Faizabad was popularly known as Fyzabad which at present is situated on the bank Saryu River. Ali Vardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal founded the Faizabad city in 1730. On the other hand the development of the city was took place during the period of Saadat Khan, the second Nawab of Awadh. After him his successor Shuja-ud-daula came to the place and made it the capital of Awadh. Later many Nawabs of different places came to the city of Faizabad and used it according to their convenience. The Nawabs ruled the city of Faziabad for a long time and moreover, it has a glorious history as well which is clearly depicted by the several beautiful buildings of that period such as the Gulab Bari, Moti Mahal and the tomb of Bahu Begum. Lastly, the glory of the place, Faizabad was faded away when Nawab Asaf-ud-daula shifted the capital from Faizabad to Lucknow. Moreover, the place of Faizabad was also a centre of one of many battles during the period of Mutiny of 1857. The history of Faizabad is clearly mentioned in 'Tareekh-e-Farahbaksh', written by Munshi Mohd. Faiz Baksh, a courtier in the Shuja-ud-Daula's court and it is believed hat the place got its name after his name. Further this book has been translated into English by Hamid Afaq Qureshi as 'Memories of Faizabad'. On the other hand, the place of Faizabad also finds a significant and detailed mention in the book, 'Guzishta Lakhnau' written by Maulvi Abdul Halim 'Sharar'.
Akhil Kumar, an eminent Indian boxer who practices an “open guarded” boxing style was born on 27th March, 1981 at Faizabad city. The Government of India conferred him with the prestigious Arjuna Award in 2005 for his achievements in international boxing.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°78'N latitude, 82°14'E longitude and 97 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 3.82% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,341 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 55th in the state and 461st in India. It is bounded by Gonda district on the North, Sultanpur district on the South, Basti district on the North East, Barabanki district on the North West, Ambedkar Nagar district on the South East and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Nagar district on the South West. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Ghaghara. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1208.7 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district comprises 5 sub-districts, 10 towns and 1,264 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 24,70,996 out of which 12,59,628 are males and 12,11,368 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 962 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 18.29% including 16.91% are males and 19.76% are females. The population density in the district is 1,056 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 59,493 including 31,960 were males and 27,533 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 10,815 out of which 6,225 were males and 4,590 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 84.75% of the total population. According to 2001 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 96.62%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, rice, oil seed, maize, gram, pea, different types of pulses, sugarcane, onion, potato, vegetables, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialized and in the name of industries only a few paper and sugar mills are available in it. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 16,86,844 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 10,44,867 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 14,75,565 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,85,570 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 52,569 at Current Price and Rs. 31,550 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Awadh University, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Kamta Prasad Sundar Lal Saket Post Graduate Degree College, Desh Deepak Aadarsh Degree College, Vidya Mandir Degree College, Government Polytechnic, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 68.73% out of which 78.12% are males and 59.03% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 14,50,901 including 8,38,339 are males and 6,12,562 are females.
Mitrasen Yadav, a veteran Indian politician and a member of 9th, 12th and 14th Lok Sabha from the Faizabad constituency was born on 11th July, 1934 at Faizabad city. He started his political career with Communist Party of India but later joined the Samajwadi Party.
During the year 2021, there were 1,57,43,359 domestic tourists and 31 foreign tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has many centres of attraction which allures numerous travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Gulab Bari, located in the district is the tomb of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula (third Nawab of Awadh). The term Gulab Bari is literally meaning 'Garden of Roses' since the place has a great variety of roses besides the water fountains. Bahu Begum ka Maqbara is the memorial constructed in the memory of Unmatuzzohra Bano Begum, the wife of Nawab Shujah-ud-Daulah. It is one of the tallest buildings with non-Mughal Muslim architecture in the whole Faizabad district. Ghanta Ghar, situated at the centre of the Faizabad city is a clock tower and the distances between the places within the city are measured from this spot. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Military Temple, Guptar Ghat, Company Gardens, Shringi Rishi Ashram, etc.