Fatehpur district, a part of Allahabad division is a district of Uttar Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Fatehpur town. The origin of the place can be traced back as far as the Vedic era. While discussing the heritage of the Vedic period General Karningham has mentioned two places of the district namely Bhitaura and Asani. Bhrigu, a famous sage was associated with Bhitaura, an important seat of learning. During the Vedic era Bhitaura region of this district was popularly known as "Antardesh", meaning the fertile area between two big rivers. Later, its name was transformed to Madhya desh meaning central region. The whole territory of the today’s Fatehpur district was previously a part of Vatsa, one of the sixteen mahajana padas mentioned in the Buddhist literature. Some evidences found in the district also prove that the Chinese traveller named Xuanzang visited the Asani, an area located within the boundary of the present district. In the village of Renh, located at a distance of 25 km. in the south-west of Fatehpur town is the place where some articles date from 800 B.C have been found. Many artifacts, including coins, bricks and idols from the periods of Mauryan, Kushan and Guptas have been found throughout the district during an excavation. Moreover, numerous temples of the Gupta period are still exist in some villages of the district namely Tenduli, Korari and Sarhan Bujurg archaeological sites. In the same way, gold coins of the era of Chandragupta II have been recovered from the village of Bijauli in the district. The bricks used in the fort of Asani are also of the Gupta Period. During the period of Mughal regime, the authority of Fatehpur was in the hands of many notable rulers of Jaunpur, Delhi and Kannauj. In the year 1801 the East India Company overpowered it. They made Fatehpur as the district headquarters in 1826. In 1966 Fatehpur was given the sub-divisional status or Paragana, on the other hand the district headquarters were shifted to Bhitaura, a block office at present.
Sohan Lal Dwivedi, an eminent Indian poet, Gandhian and freedom fighter was born on 22nd February, 1906 at Bindki in the Fatehpur district. He is well known for his patriotic poems such as Tumhe Naman, Ali Racho Chand, Khadi Geet, Giriraj, Nayanon ki Resham Dori se, etc. He was honoured by the prestigious Padma Shri Award in 1970.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°93'N latitude, 80°81'E longitude and 110 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 1.29% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,152 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 20th in the state and 284th in India. It is bounded by Kanpur district, Raebareli and Unnao district on the north, Chitrakoot district on the south, Kaushambi district on the south east and Hamirpur district and Banda district on the south west. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Yamuna and Ganga. The climate of the district is characterized by a hot summer and a pleasant winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 900.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 sub-divisions namely, Fatehpur, Bindki and Khaga. Again, these sub divisions are further divided into 13 development blocks includes Airaya, Amauli, Asothar, Bahua, Bhitaura, Deomai, Dhata, Haswa, Hathgam, Khajuha, Malwan, Teliyani and Vijayipur. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 6 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 7 towns and 1,515 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 26,32,733 out of which 13,84,722 are males and 12,48,011 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 901 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 14.05% including 13.54% were males and 14.62% were females. The population density in the district is 634 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 47,681 including 24,672 were males and 23,009 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 9,615 out of which 6,566 were males and 3,049 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 86.40% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 97.49%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are used for agricultural purpose. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, wheat, cash crops, coarse cereals, pulses, oil seeds, potato, arhar, sugarcane, bajra, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. More than half of the population in the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialised. Only a few industries and factories of steel pipes, furniture, utensils, pulleys, beams, doors, windows and other wooden furniture are available in the district. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Fatehpur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts that is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 21,01,512 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 13,03,334 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 18,52,421 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 11,21,886 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 64,146 at Current Price and Rs. 38,849 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of numerous reputed educational institutions. It provides platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Mahatma Gandhi Degree College, Rani Chandra Prabha Degree College, S.N. Degree College, Dilip Kumar Smarak Mahavidyalaya, Dr. B.R.A. Government Girls Degree College, Swatantrata Sangram Senani Swargiya, Amar Shahid Kanchan Singh Mahavidyalaya, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 67.43% including 77.19% are males and 56.58% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 15,12,166 including 9,11,003 are males and 6,01,163 are females.
Intezar Husain Abidi, a distinguished Indian politician and a former cabinet minister under Mayawati headed government in Uttar Pradesh was born at Bahera Sadat village in the Fatehpur district. He is a member of the Bahujan Samaj Party.
During the year 2021, there were 2,37,973 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has numerous centres of attraction with historical and religious significance which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Bawani Imali, a beautiful monument located very near to Khajuha town in the district depicts the sacrifices that made by the freedom fighters. A huge number of fifty two freedom fighters were hanged by the British on the "Imali" tree on 28th April, 1858. Bhitaura, situated on the bank of Ganga River is a very pious place since the renowned saint Bhrigu worshipped in this place for a long time. Hathgam is the birth place of great freedom fighter Late Shri Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi and renowned Urdu poet Shri Iqbal Verma. The famous Saint Parashar used to worship in this place which made it a religious place also. Some other prominent places of interest in the district are Renh, Shivrajpur, Tenduli, Jai Siddheshwar Temple, Kalkan Mandir, Tambeshwar Temple, Hanuman Mandir, Bhittora Ghat Temple, Korari, etc.