Sultanpur district, a part of Faizabad division is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Sultanpur town. During the period between 14th-15th century, a large part of the district was ruled by Rajkunwars of Chauhan dynasty, Bandalgotis, Rajwars and Bachgotis. After the British invasion of Oudh at the time of Sepoy Mutiny, a prominent incident took place at Sultanpur was the revolt of the native troops in the 19th century. On 9th June, 1857 after their two officers were murdered, the troops rose in rebellion. Native people and tribes like that of Bhale Sultans also fought in the rebellion. The leaders of that period like Lal Pratap Singh of Kalakankar, Maharaj Bariar Singh Rajkunwar and some other fought very bravely and died for the reason. The restoration of order restricted the involvement of British troops which helped to strengthen the Sultanpur cantonment. However, in 1861 it was entirely abandoned as a military station.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°26'N latitude, 82°07'E longitude and 95 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 4.69% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,436 sq kms. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 15th in the state and 263rd in India. It is bounded by Faizabad district and Ambedkar Nagar district on the north, Pratapgarh district and Jaunpur district on the south, Azamgarh district on the east and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Nagar district on the west. The prominent river that flows through the district is Gomati. The climate of the district is characterised as tropical wet and dry climate. Most its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1184.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 6 tehsils namely Dostpur, Lambhua, Kadipur, Koeripur, Korwa and Semari Bazar. There are 2 Lok Sabha and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 7 sub-districts, 11 towns and 2,527 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 37,97,117 out of which 19,14,586 are males and 18,82,531 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 983 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 18.11% including 17.91% were males and 18.32% were females. The population density in the district is 856 persons per sq. kms. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 58,998 including 31,591 were males and 27,407 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 17,266 out of which 11,029 were males and 6,237 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 82.16% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 96.83%.
The district is full of industries which help in its economy to a great extent. Jagdishpur is the key industrial area in the district since it has BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited), Indo Gulf Fertiliser Limited and some other leather factories. Moreover, the district has two most core industries such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) testing centre and ACC cement factory. These industries provide a huge employment facility to the natives of the district. Every year a large amount of revenue comes from these industries. On the other hand some of its population are engaged in agriculture. The chief agricultural products of the district are rice, pulses, wheat, barley, sugarcane, poppy, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 15,93,385 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 9,77,773 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 14,02,204 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,33,267 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 51,808 at Current Price and Rs. 30,787 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of numerous reputed educational institutions. It provides platform for higher education. Some of its recognized educational institutions are Ganpat Sahai Post Graduate College, Jham Baba Degree College, Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology, Government Inter College, Keshkumari Government Girls Inter College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 69.27% including 80.19% are males and 58.28% are females.
Pandit Sripati Mishra, an eminent Indian politician and the 13th Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh (19th July, 1982-2nd August, 1984) was born in January, 1923 at Sheshpur village in the Sultanpur district. He was a member of Indian National Congress party. Mohd. Tahir Khan, an illustrious Indian politician and a member of 14th Lok Sabha from the Sultanpur Lok Sabha constituency was born on 15th August, 1975 at Sultanpur town. He is a member of Bahujan Samaj Party.
During the year 2021, there were 3,06,530 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. Every year numerous travellers from different parts of the country as well as world come to this place in order to enjoy its various centres of attraction with historical and religious significance. Devlok, located at a distance of 21 kms. from Sultanpur is the place where the Holy Samadhi of Ghasi baba is situated. Natives of the district believe that this place is the way to Heaven. Koond is the place of penance of Sawami Lokdas around 300 years back. The western part of this place is called 'Satyasagar' which is a well known religious spot. Sitakund, situated in the northern side of Sultanpur city is belived to be the place where Goddess Sita, the wife of Lord Rama had taken a bath during their exile period. Vijethua is one of the pious places in the district and the grand temple of Shri Hanumanji is the identity of this place. Some other renowned places of interest in the district are Satthin Sharif, Dhopap, Pali, Kotwa, Koeripur, Lohramau, etc.