Chandauli district, a part of Varanasi division is a district of Uttar Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Chandauli town. The history of Chandauli district is interesting. It is a part of the Varanasi Division. Since, the district was a part of Kashi kingdom in the ancient times hence the history of this place is as same as the Kashi kingdom of Varanasi district. Bharatvarsha comprised sixteen Mahajanpadas before the birth of Lord Buddha, in 6th century B.C and Kashi was one of them with its capital was located at Varanasi. From the very beginning Varanasi is a vital seat of learning. Even the name of Varanasi is mentioned in the great epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana. The place got its name Kashi from the king Kashi, the seventh king of this dynasty. After the seventh generation a prominent King named Dhanwantri, occupied this region and his name is famous in the field of medicine as founder of Ayurveda. Kashi kingdom was, however, dominated by Brahmadutta dynasty of Magadh during the century preceding the Mahabharata war but past Mahabharata period saw the rise of Brahmadutta dynasty. On the other hand in the Jain scriptures, a king of kashi named Ashwasewa was the father of 24rd Tirthankar Parshvanath. In the year 1775 Kashi Kingdom went under the influence of British Empire. The last king of this generation was Bibhuti Narayan Singh who ruled over this place for almost about eight years till the India got its independence and Banaras state was merged with India. The present Chandauli district was emerged as a separate district for the first time on 25th May, 1997. Later, Mayawati dissolved it on January, 2004 by ensuring its merger again in Varanasi. But, the decision was challenged in the High Court. Therefore, it was recreated on 17th June, 2004. The district is well known as the "Dhaan Ka Katora of Uttar Pradesh" for the reason that it has the extremely fertile alluvial soil of the Gangetic Plain.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°27'N latitude, 83°27'E longitude and 39 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 21.78% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,541 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 48th in the state and 433 rd in India. It is bounded by Ghazipur district on the north east, Sonbhadra district on the south, Bihar on the south east and east and Mirzapur district on the south west. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Ganga, Karmanasha, Chandraprabha. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer and fairly cold in the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 537.8 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 tehsils namely Chandauli, Sakaldeeha and Chakia. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 11 towns and 1,629 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 19,52,756 including 10,17,905 are males and 9,34,851 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 918 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 18.83% out of which 19.04% were males and 18.62% were females. The population density in the district is 768 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 42,095 including 21,454 were males and 20,641 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,683 out of which 1,486 were males and 1,197 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 88.48% of the total population. According to 2001 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 98.70%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are used for agricultural purposes. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, wheat, barley, gram, peas, different types of pulses, maize, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. More than half of the population in the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialized. Only a few industries are available in the district namely Shri Hanuman Industry, Agarwal Aluminum Industry, Alaknanda Cement Pvt. Ltd, Laxmi Business Promotion Pvt. Ltd, etc. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Chandauli as one of the country's 250 most backward districts that is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 10,99,332 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 6,75,536 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 9,67,062 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 5,78,160 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 43,405 at Current Price and Rs. 25,950 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of numerous reputed educational institutions. It provides platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Pt. Ramadhar J.Tiwari College of Polytechnic, Maa Bhawani P G Collage, Haji Muhammd Ayub Memorial Inter College, Balmiki Inter Collage, Shri Saraswati Inter College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 71.48% including 81.72% are males and 60.35% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 11,74,606 including 6,99,454 are males and 4,75,152 are females.
Ramkishun, an eminent Indian politician and a member of the 15th Lok Sabha from the Chandauli constituency was born on 3rd August, 1956 at Bauri in the Chandauli district. He is a member of the Samajwadi Party (SP) political party. Rajnath Singh, an illustrious Indian politician and the current Home Minister of India was born on 10th July, 1951 at Bhabhaura in the district. Earlier, he served as the Chief Minister of the state of Uttar Pradesh and also as a Cabinet Minister in the Vajpayee Government. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party.
During the year 2021, there were 98,895 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has numerous centres of attraction with historical and religious significance which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary in the district was established in 1957 covering 9.6 hectare of reserved forest area in Chandraprabha and Jaimohini Range. Rajdari, Devdari and Aurwatand (Small Devdari) are the core tourist destinations in this place. The waterfall of Rajdari and Devdari is situated on the Chandraprabha River and near to these waterfalls there is a notable dam named Chandraprabha Dam, which also draws visitors from across the country. Moreover, the scenery around the waterfalls is so beautiful that it gives mental peace to its visitors. Some other renowned places of interest in the district are Dhanapur Martyr Memorial, Baba Kinaram, Chakiya Kali Mandir, Baba Latif Shah Tomb, Naugarh Dam, Arvatand Waterfall, etc.