Balarampur district, a part of Devipatan is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Balrampur town. The district got its name from the earlier princely estate (Taluqdari) and its capital, Balrampur. The estate is named after Balram Das who founded it in c. 1600 CE. Previously, the district was a part of the Kosala kingdom. In the medieval era during the Mughal rule, the area was a significant part of the Bahraich Sarkar of Awadh Subah. After sometime, it went into the hands of the ruler of Awadh till the British government annexed it in February, 1856. The British government separated Gonda from Bahraich and it became a part of Gonda. During the British rule, a special commission with its headquarters located at Gonda and military command at Sakraura Colonelganj was set up in order to supervise the administration of this area. At that time, Balrampur was an Estate or Taluqdari in the Utraula tehsil of the Gonda district which comprised 3 tehsils namely Gonda Sadar, Tarabganj and Utraula. After India got its independence, Balrampur estate became a part of Utraula tehsil of Gonda district. But on 1st July, 1953 the Uttraulla tehsil was divided into two tehsils namely Balrampur and Utraula. Later, in the year 1997 Gonda district was divided into two parts and that was the beginning period a new district, Balrampur, with its three tehsils includes Balarampur, Utraula, and Tulsipur. The present Balrampur district was emerged on 25th May, 1997 in the map of Uttar Pradesh state.
Ali Sardar Jafri, a prolific and versatile Indian Urdu writer. He was honoured by many awards and among these the most prominent awards are Padma Shri (1967) and Jnanpith Award (1997).
Geographically, the district lies at 27°43'N latitude, 82°18'E longitude and 105 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 16.05% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,349 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the rank of 34th in state and 360th in India. It is bounded by Dang Deukhuri district of Nepal on the north, Kapilavastu district of Nepal on the north east, Basti District on the south, Siddharthnagar district on the east and Shravasti district on the west. The prominent river that flows through the district is Rapti river. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer and fairly cold during the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs during the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1517.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 tehsils namely Balrampur, Tulsipur and Utraula. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 6 towns and 1,015 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 21,48,665 out of which 11,14,721 are males and 10,33,944 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 928 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 27.72% including 25.54% were males and 30.15% were females. The district has a population density of 642 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 62,018 including 32,441 were males and 29,577 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 1,600 out of which 994 were males and 606 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 62.05% and 37.51% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 95.86%.
The economy of the district is solely dependent on agriculture. Most of the lands in the district are used for agricultural purposes. Some of its chief agricultural products are rice, wheat, barley, maize, pulses, sugarcane, potato, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Most of the people in the district are engaged in agriculture since the district is scantily industrialized. Only a few sugar mills are available in the district. Balrampur town is well known for the Balrampur Chini Mills, one of the largest sugar manufacturing industries in the country. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Balrampur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts that is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 9,86,726 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 6,07,486 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 8,79,597 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 5,28,356 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 33,485 at Current Price and Rs. 20,113 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The first inter college in the district was established in the year 1883 by the royal family of Balrampur. The land for the most recognised Maharani Lal Kunwari Post Graduate College founded in 1955 was donated by Maharaja of the Balrampur district. Some other reputed colleges in the district are Maharani Lal Kunwari (PG) College, Maharaja Pateshwari Prasad Inter College, Dayanand Anglovaidik Inter College, Kendriya Vidyalaya Kendriya Vidyalaya, St. Xavier's High school, Jesus & Mary school, Sharada Public School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 49.51% including 59.73% are males and 38.43% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 8,68,357 including 5,44,943 are males and 3,23,414 are females.
During the year 2021, there were 44,644 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. The district is full of religious and historical places which allures numerous travellers every year from different parts of the country as well as world. Patan Devi Temple, the most popular Hindu temple is situated at a distance of 27 km. in Tulsipur in the district headquarters. As per Hindu mythology the temple is included in 51 "Shaktipeethas" of Goddess Durga. Pilgrims from far distance come to this temple to offer their prayers. Every year during the month of chaitra a "Mela" has been organized in this place. Bijleshwari Devi temple is also famous among the local people. Bijleshwari Devi temple, another notable temple is situated at a place known as Bijlipur. It was constructed n he 19th century by the Maharaja of Balrampur which is an excellent example of intricate carving in red stone, which cover the whole structure. Some of its other renowned places of interest are Sahet, Mahet, Sobhnath Temple, Shwetambar Temple, etc.