Saharanpur district is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Saharanpur city. In the ancient period the whole Saharanpur district was the part of the Yamuna-Ganges Doab region. At that time the region of Saharanpur district is connected with Indus Valley Civilization. Natives of the district believe that in the ancient period there were some centres of Harappa culture in Ambakheri, Bargaon, Naseerpur and Hulas since some things similar to Harappan civilization were found in these regions. During the Mughal period, the civil administration for the first time in Saharanpur was established by the great Emperor Akbar. Lastly, the district was ruled by the British when the British East India Company marched to this region in the year 1803. After the British-Gurkha War of 1816, the Greater Nepal’s Dehradun region became the part of the Saharanpur district. At that time the current districts of Muzaffarnagar, Haridwar and Dehradun were combined and formed a part of Saharanpur district. Saharanpur city was named after a Sufi saint called Sah haron, also a Mughal treasurer who laid the foundation of the present day city on the place of an army cantonment.
Zohra Sehgal, an eminent Indian actress and choreographer was born on 27th April, 1912 at the Saharanpur city. She started her career as a dancer in Uday Shankar's troupe and performed in different countries like the United States, Japan, etc. She was also honoured by some prestigious awards such as Padma Shri in 1998, Kalidas Samman in 2001, Sangeet Natak Akademi in 2004 and Padma Vibhushan in 2010.
Geographically, the district lies at 29°97'N latitude, 77°55'E longitude and 268 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 13.37% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,689 sq kms. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 30th in the state and 328th in India. It is bounded by Shivalik Hills on the north, Muzafarnagar district on the south, Haridwar district on the east and Yamuna River on the west. The prominent river that flows through the district is Yamuna. During summers the climate of the district remains extremely hot and humid. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 992.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 sub divisions namely Saharanpur, Deoband, Nakur, Behat and Rampur Maniharan. There are one Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 5 sub-districts, 16 towns and 1,572 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 34,66,382 out of which 18,34,106 are males and 16,32,276 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 890 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 19.66% including 18.08% were males and 21.49% were females. The population density in the district is 940 persons per sq. kms. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 1,14,910 including 61,017 were males and 53,893 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 23,104 out of which 14,864 were males and 8,240 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 56.74% and 41.95% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Urdu with 80.80% and 18.57%.
The soil of the district is very fertile and suitable for agriculture. More than half of its land is under agricultural use. The economy of the district is solely dependent on agriculture. The chief food crops and commercial crops of the region are wheat, rice, maize, jawar, bajara, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, jute, etc. The district is not rich in mineral resources but it is quite industrially developed. Numerous agro based industries have been set up in the district. Moreover, sugar industry, paper industry and wood carving industry are found in the district help in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 30,80,405 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 19,61,659 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 27,34,632 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 16,97,893 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 68,687 at Current Price and Rs. 42,647 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The Paper and Pulp Technology Institute, a significant institute located in the district is affiliated to the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee and Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to the Meerut University. Some important projects are also in process to establish two vital educational institutions including a state university named Shobhit University and a medical college named Molana Mahmud Hasan Allophethic Government medical college. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 70.49% including 78.28% are males and 61.74% are females.
Chaudhary Yashpal Singh, an illustrious Indian politician and a Member of 8th Lok Sabha (Dec 1984-Nov 1989) from Saharanpur constituency was born on 10th October, 1922 in the Saharanpur district. He has served as a member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly for several times. At the very beginning of his political career he was a member of Indian National Congress but later he joined the Bharatiya Janata Party then Rashtriya Janata Dal and now at present he is a member of Samajwadi party. Dr. Dharam Singh Saini, a prominent Indian politician and a member of the 14th, 15th and the 16th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh was born on 4th April, 1961 at Sona village in the district. He is a member of Bahujan Samaj party.
During the year 2021, there were 33,26,545 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has different extra ordinary centres of attraction which allures numerous travellers from across the country as well as world. Shakti Peeth Shakumbari, a pious place located at a distance of 40 kms. to the north of Saharanpur has a temple of Goddess Shakti which is the identity of the Shakumbari area. Every year on the occasion Navratra, two most famous called Ashwin and Chetra are held in this place. Guggha Veer or Gughal, is a religious place popularly known, as Jahar Deewan Guggha peer. Another notable religious place in the district is Nau Gaza Peer and devotees from different parts of the country come to this place to offer their prayers. Company Garden and Saharanpur Botanic Garden are the two beautiful historical gardens of the district.